心理科学 2017, 40(6) 1309-1315 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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本文关键词相关文章
前瞻记忆
规律性
执行情境
眼动
本文作者相关文章
郭云飞
辛聪
干加裙
陈幼贞*
PubMed
Article by Guo,Y.F
Article by Xin,c
Article by Gan,J.Q
Article by Chen,Y.Z.*
任务规律性对前瞻记忆的影响
郭云飞1,辛聪2,干加裙2,陈幼贞*3
1. 西南大学
2. 福建师范大学
3. 福建师范大学心理学院
摘要: 采用两因素被试间实验设计,结合行为和眼动数据,探讨前瞻记忆任务的规律性和情境已知与否对前瞻记忆的影响。结果表明:在规律已知条件下,前瞻记忆的成绩和反应速度均优于无规律和规律未知条件,对前瞻记忆线索的注视点更多,第一注视时间更长,而进行中任务的反应速度也显著提高。说明规律已知条件对前瞻记忆有很好的促进作用。规律已知条件下前瞻记忆的加工机制是一种动态交替的加工过程,可以对认知资源进行灵活地分配。
关键词前瞻记忆   规律性   执行情境   眼动  
The Effect of Task Regularity and Knowability of Execution Situation on Prospective Memory: Evidences from Behavioral and Eye-Movement Study
Abstract: Prospective memory represents the ability of remembering to carry out an intended action in the future. In a typical prospective memory experiment, participants are required to engage in two tasks: the ongoing task and prospective task. According to the nature of the prospective memory cues, there are two types of prospective memory: time-based (TBPM) and event-based prospective memory (EBPM).There are two kinds of processes that can support prospective memory: preparatory attentional processes and memory processes theory (PAM) and multiple processes theory. The PAM assumes that prospective memory retrieval requires resource-demanding preparatory attentional processes, whereas the multiple process theory assumes that retrieval can also occur spontaneously; But according to the regularity of prospective memory, there are also two types of prospective memory: regular prospective memory and irregular prospective memory. Lots of researchers had indicated that regular prospective memory could effectively improve prospective memory results. But those studies did not rule out the possibility of practice effects. Therefore, in the case of the possibility of practice effects, we explored the effect and mechanism of regular prospective memory. Some researchers argued that the knowability of execution situation may affect prospective memory. Therefore, we separated regular prospective memory into two conditions: one was that we knew the regularities, the other was the complete opposite. Our aim was to detailedly and deeply explore the effect and mechanism of regular prospective memory. In addition, we employed a new eyetracking paradigm to concretely investigate the impact of regular environmental cues within a visual prospective memory task. Experiments were programmed by Experiment Bulider. The present study adopted a single factor design. A total of 53 college students (18 no regularity, 17 unknown regularity, 18 known regularity) participated the experiment. Participants were asked to respond by pressing the key (A or B), but when meeting the prospective memory cues they should press the specified key (C). The hypothesis was that both accuracy and reaction speed of regular prospective memory (including unknown regularity and known regularity) were better than irregular prospective memory. During the course of experiments, Ongoing task and PM task were done simultaneously by participants. Participants’ behavioral data and eye-movement data were recorded by computer automatically. The results showed that both accuracy and reaction speed of regular prospective memory were better than irregular prospective when the execution situation was known. But there were no difference when the regular situation was unknown. The eye-movement data showed that participants tend to pay more attention to prospective memory cues and regular situation when regular situation was known. The main stream theories could not explain the results. But cognitive resources limitation model argue that cognitive resources were limited. According to situation, participants could allocate the cognitive resources in a flexible style. When the regular situation was known, participants could make a plan in the light of whether the regular situation would appear. When regular cues were not presented, they did not allocate much more cognitive resources to prospective memory tasks. However, when regular situation was coming, they would pay more attrition to prospective memory cues.
Keywords: prospective memory   regularity   execution situation   eye tracking  
DOI:
基金项目:

通讯作者: 陈幼贞*
作者简介:
作者Email: chenyouzhen08@163.com

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