心理科学 2018, (2) 292-297 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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被试操作任务 SPT效应 项目特异性信息 项目关联性信息
本文作者相关文章
李广政
李梅
林文毅
王丽娟
PubMed
Article by Li,A.Z
Article by Li,m
Article by Lin,W.Y
Article by Yu,L.J
SPT效应的编码机制:项目特异性与项目关联性信息
李广政1,李梅1,林文毅1,王丽娟2
1. 江苏师范大学
2. 东北师范大学
摘要: SPT是增强了项目特异性信息还是增强了项目关联性信息一直是SPT效应研究的主题。研究从项目特异性信息和项目关联性信息两个层面综述了SPT效应编码机制的相关研究。在项目特异性信息方面,研究剖析了SPT增强项目特异性信息加工的具体内容、所采取的研究方式以及SPT增强项目特异性加工的原因。在项目关联信息方面,研究分类梳理了情景关联、项目与环境的关联以及类别关联在SPT效应中的作用。未来研究应着手探索SPT能够增强项目特异性加工的深层原因。
关键词被试操作任务 SPT效应 项目特异性信息 项目关联性信息  
The Encoding Mechanism of SPT Effect: Item-Specific and Item-Relational Information
Abstract: It is well established that recall and recognition scores are enhanced when the participants are instructed to perform the action during encoding(subject-performed tasks, SPT), compared to the standard condition in which they only read or listen to the phrases(verbal tasks, VT). That is, compared with verbal tasks, the superior memory performance in subject-performed tasks is known as SPT effect.SPT effect was so significant and prevalent that it attracted great attention of researchers. Consecutively, four theories - the non-strategic processing theory, the multimodal encoding theory, the motor encoding theory and the episodic integration theory were proposed to explain SPT effect. Based on the above analysis, we considered that the divergences were that whether SPT enhances item-specific information or relational information. A large number of researchers have made a series of discussion to solve the divergence, which becomes the focus of current researches. Therefore, in order to explore the encoding mechanism of the SPT effects, this research combed the related researches about the item-specific information and the relational information. In the aspect of item-specific information, this paper analyzes the item-specific content of SPT enhanced, the research methods adopted and the reasons for SPT enhancing item-specific processing. Specifically, researchers adopted different test methods, and they all agreed that the action could advance the item specific information. In other words, the integration of action phrase as well as the specific information of the verb and noun, were enhanced when action were performed. The action phrases become more distinct, so in subsequent tests, the performance was better under the SPT encoding condition. In the aspect of rational information, the paper sorts out the relationship between the situations, the relationship between the project and the environment, and the role of the association in the SPT effect. The previous researches considered that the action does not improve the processing of episodic rational information, nor relational information associated with environment. However, there are differences but for category association, only three studies showed that SPT can enhance the category association processing, and a large number of studies have found that SPT does not promote the category association of information processing. Even when the word structure is obvious or inform the individuals the word structure, the use of VT on the category related information is better than that of SPT. As discussed above, researches using ARC scores to calculate categories of relevant information, which caused the different conclusions. Therefore, future researches can try to use different research methods to explore whether the category related processing contributes to the SPT effect. Although SPT can enhance the specific processing, but studies have not explored deeply. This mainly reflected in the following aspects. First, SPT enhanced the specific information of the verb and noun, whether there is a difference in quantity. Second, the reason why SPT advances the processing of item-specific information is inconsistent. Third, the relationship between the encoding and retrieval needs to be discussed. Therefore, the future researchers can further study the above aspects.
Keywords: SPT, SPT effect, Item-Specific Information, Relational Information  
DOI:
基金项目:

国家自然科学基金

通讯作者: 王丽娟
作者简介:
作者Email: wanglj699@nenu.edu.cn

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