心理科学 2018, (2) 357-363 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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本文关键词相关文章
小学儿童
公平认知
程序公平认知
程序信息
结果信息
本文作者相关文章
丁芳
刘颜蓥
张露
PubMed
Article by Ding,f
Article by Liu,Y.Y
Article by Zhang,l
小学儿童程序公平认知及其归因取向的发展
丁芳,刘颜蓥,张露
苏州大学教育学院心理学系
摘要: 为了探讨小学儿童的程序公平认知以及不同程序信息下程序公平认知归因取向的发展特点,研究采用自编的程序公平认知情境故事材料,对150名小学1、3、5年级儿童进行测查。结果表明:小学儿童的程序公平认知能力随年级增长而提高,在有投票权且同等和有投票权但不等下的程序公平认知得分显著高于在无投票权下,在消极结果信息下的程序公平认知得分显著高于在积极结果信息下,且年级、程序信息、结果信息两两之间和三者之间均存在显著交互作用。随年级增长,小学儿童的程序公平认知归因在结果取向和权威取向上不断减少,在过程取向上不断增多,在能力取向上则是上升到3年级之后又逐渐减少。研究说明小学儿童的程序公平认知能力随年龄增长而发展,并受程序信息和结果信息的影响;小学儿童的程序公平认知归因随年龄增长越来越倾向于过程取向。
关键词小学儿童   公平认知   程序公平认知   程序信息   结果信息  
The Development of Primary School Children’s Ability of Procedural Fairness Cognition and Its Attribution Orientation
Abstract: According to the literatures on procedural fairness cognition, some researchers have provided the evidences to support the idea that high school students, college students and adults attach importance to procedural fairness. But until now, there is little research exploring primary school children’s procedural fairness cognition. In addition, the existing findings in the western world can not be directly extended to the eastern cultural environment without empirical test, because of the great differences between eastern culture and western culture. Based on these reasons, this research systematically examined the development of primary school children’s ability of procedural fairness cognition. First of all, a procedural fairness cognitive scenario story was collected and veri?ed as the measure material for developmental characteristics of procedural fairness cognition in the following study. The main content of the scenario story was to assume that the participant’s class won in a broadcast gymnastics competition, and that the school should select 10 students from the class to go to the amusement park as a class reward. The scenario story included three kinds of procedural information (have equal voting rights, have voting rights yet not equal, non-voting right) and two kinds of outcome information (positive, negative). Through scoring and explaining the reasons for the three procedural information in two different outcomes, the children’s procedural fairness cognition was examined. After a series of tests, we found that the measure material’ construct validity was .75 and its internal consistency coef?cient was .89. Then the procedural fairness cognitive scenario story was used to investigate the developmental characteristics of ability of procedural fairness cognition and its attribution orientation in different procedural information of 150 primary school children from 1, 3, 5 grades. The results were as follows: (1) The score of primary school children’s ability of procedural fairness cognition showed a gradually improving trend with the growth of grade. Three grades of primary school children could judge whether the procedure is fair when they had the clear procedural information. The procedural fairness judgment of grade 1 children was more influenced by the outcome information, and with the improvement of their moral judgment and cognitive ability. (2) Both the score of primary school children’s ability of procedural fairness cognition in the case of having equal voting rights and having voting rights yet not equal were signi?cantly higher than that in the case of non-voting right. and the score under the negative outcome information was significantly higher than that under the positive outcome information. When the children had the clear fairness procedural information, their fairness judgment was less affected by the outcome information, otherwise the latter was easy to be affected by the outcome. (3) With the growth of the grade, the procedural fairness cognitive attribution of primary school children decreased in the outcome-orientation and authority-orientation, while increased in the procedure–orientation. The attribution in the ability-orientation increased with grade, and then decreased gradually after grade 3. The research shows that primary school children’s ability of procedural fairness cognition develops with age and is influenced by procedural information and outcome information. The procedural fairness cognitive attribution of primary school children is more and more inclined to procedure–orientation with age.
Keywords: primary school children   fairness cognition   procedural fairness cognition   procedural information   outcome information  
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通讯作者: 丁芳
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作者Email: dingfang@suda.edu.cn

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