心理科学 2018, (2) 410-415 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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本文关键词相关文章
跨期选择
时间知觉
老化
时间折扣/ 时间贴现
折扣率
本文作者相关文章
胡雪
刘启珍
龚先旻
尹述飞
PubMed
Article by Hu,x
Article by Liu,Q.Z
Article by Gong,X.M
Article by Yun,S.F
时间知觉在老年人跨期选择中的作用
胡雪1,刘启珍1,龚先旻2,3,尹述飞1
1. 湖北大学
2.
3. 北京师范大学发展心理研究所
摘要: 随着人口老龄化速度的加快,老年人的跨期选择问题受到越来越多的关注。时间知觉是影响跨期选择的重要因素之一。然而,目前从时间知觉的角度来探讨老年人跨期选择的研究比较有限。本文在总结国内外相关研究的基础之上,试图分析时间知觉的随龄变化如何影响老年人的跨期选择。具体而言,本文从时间长度知觉、时间成本知觉以及时间知觉相关心理动机三个方面进行探讨,并指出了时间知觉视角的局限性及今后的研究方向。
关键词跨期选择   时间知觉   老化   时间折扣/ 时间贴现   折扣率  
Impact of Time Perception on Intertemporal Choice in the Older Adults
Abstract: Intertemporal choice is a decision-making process that involves tradeoffs between costs and benefits at different points in time. It has been a hot topic in multiple disciplines. However, it is much less known how intertemporal choice changes with the growth of age. A majority of studies found that older adults displayed more preference for delayed, bigger rewards over immediate, smaller rewards compared to younger adults. The current review mainly, but not exclusively, focuses on the way in which age-related differences in time perception impact intertemporal choice. First, subjective perception of time interval can explain multiple discounted-utility anomalies better than objective time interval. As we age, subjective time becomes faster, and degree of time compression becomes higher. There are several interpretations to the age-related changes in time perception. (1) The “internal clock” slows down when individuals age. (2) The occurrence rate of important or novel life events decrease with age. (3) Cognitive resources decrease with age, which constrains individuals’ capacity to monitor time. (4) Wealthy life experience in older adults also promotes the feeling that a certain interval is not so long. Second, previous studies have found that older adult perceived lower time cost than younger adults, which might cause their underestimation of the value of immediate rewards. There are several interpretations to this phenomenon. (1) Older adults’ wealthy life experience and knowledge help them reduce their inner uncertainties about life and make them more optimistic. (2) The deterioration of sensory function weakens the pleasure of getting immediate rewards and reduces the uncomfortableness in the process of waiting for delayed rewards. (3) Old adults regulate emotions more frequently and effectively, which helps them cope with negative emotions caused by delaying gratification. Third, the socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) asserts that people perceive their future life time incrementally decreases after they step into their later life, which results in a chronicle shift in their life goals. Specifically, younger adults prioritize future-oriented knowledge-seeking goals, while older adults increasingly prioritize present-oriented emotional goals. As a consequence, older adults develop better emotion-regulation abilities to fulfill their emotional goals. The shift in life goal and motivation resulting from age-related changes in time perception may contribute to better self-control of impulsivity, better skills in dealing with emotions, and higher levels of optimism among older adults, and thus making older adults more willing to wait for delayed rewards compared to younger adults. In short, time perception is an important factor that results in age-related changes in intertemporal choice. However, we also acknowledge that there are other factors which may dynamically and interactively influence younger and older adults’ intertemporal choices. Future research needs to figure out how these factors dynamically interact with each other.
Keywords: intertemporal choice   time perception   aging   time discounting   discount rate  
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通讯作者: 尹述飞
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作者Email: yinshufei121@163.com

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