心理科学 2018, (3) 700-705 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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本文关键词相关文章
宽恕
冒犯
行为测量
神经机制
本文作者相关文章
李海江
卢家楣
PubMed
Article by Li,H.J
Article by Lv,J.M
宽恕心理的行为测量及认知神经机制
李海江1,卢家楣2
1. 上海师范大学
2. 上海师范大学教育学院
摘要: 宽恕是一个复杂的心理过程,被认为是对冒犯者的亲社会化转变的过程,包括认知、情绪、动机和行为上的改变。本文回顾了国内外宽恕心理的行为测量范式和认知神经机制研究相关的成果,发现宽恕心理的行为测量范式能够揭示宽恕相关的心理过程;认知神经机制的研究发现宽恕心理过程主要涉及负责社会认知、共情和认知控制等功能的脑区。未来的研究应关注宽恕心理行为测量范式的有效性和揭示内容的一致性、宽恕心理的认知和脑神经基础。
关键词宽恕   冒犯   行为测量   神经机制  
A review of the behavioral measures of forgiveness and its cognitive neural mechanism
1,Jia-Mei LU
Abstract: Forgiveness is regarded as a complex phenomenon and researchers have no consensus on the definition of forgiveness. However, most researchers agree that forgiveness involved a prosocial change toward the offender which concerning a decrease in negative thoughts, emotions, motivations, and behaviors toward a transgressor, as well as an increase in positive thoughts, emotions, motivations, and behaviors toward a transgressor. Previous studies have found that forgiveness is positively correlated with improvement of relationship quality and increases of subjective well-being, negatively related to neuroticism, depression, and rumination. Forgiveness were also found to be related to physical health. All these factors make forgiveness become an interesting research subject of psychologists. In the present article, we reviewed evidence concerning behavioral measures of forgiveness and cognitive neural mechanism of forgiveness. We introduced four behavioral measures paradigm of forgiveness including revised Cyberball task, revised Dictator game, revised Prisoner's dilemma game and revised Taylor aggression paradigm. The results of behavioral paradigm found that these behavioral measures can elicited the same feelings as a transgression in laboratory and may be useful to assess forgiveness which was supported by significantly correlation between self-reported forgiveness and behavioral response. Imaging studies examining cortical responses to forgiveness have implicated several brain regions, including medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction, typically those associated with social cognition, cognitive control, empathy and theory of mind. Future research should further explore the influence of different behavioral measures on forgiveness process. Which aspect of forgiveness was assessed by each of the behavioral measures of forgiveness and whether these different aspects of forgiveness overlap? Whether simple behavioral responses among different measures can reflect and uncover the mechanism of high psychological process like forgiveness? In addition, the cognitive neural mechanism of forgiveness remain unclear and need to pay more attention. How different cortical activation to forgiveness collaborate with each other to facilitate individuals’ forgiveness after experiencing transgression? How other psychological processes such as the ability of cognitive control influence forgiveness? what’s the cognitive neural mechanism of the influence of cognitive control on forgiveness? Finally, the brain basis associated with forgiveness still unknown. With the development of multimode imaging methods (resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging), it is possible to explored the brain structural and brain spontaneous activity associations with cognition, emotion and ability from the perspective of individual difference. Thus, future research should explore the brain structural and functional substrate of forgiveness.
Keywords: forgiveness   offences   behavioral measure   cognitive neural mechanism  
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通讯作者: 卢家楣
作者简介:
作者Email: lujiamei@vip.163.com

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