心理科学 2018, (3) 633-638 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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本文关键词相关文章
危机决策
决策者角色
任务框架
眼动技术
本文作者相关文章
王大伟
王粟雅
李家瑞
胡艺馨
PubMed
Article by Yu,T.W
Article by Yu,S.Y
Article by Li,J.R
Article by Hu,Y.X
自我—他人危机决策信息加工过程的差异:来自眼动的证据
王大伟1,王粟雅2,李家瑞3,胡艺馨2
1. 山东师范大学心理学院;中国科学院
2. 山东师范大学
3. 山东师范大学心理学院
摘要: 本研究采用iView X-RED眼动仪,分两个实验来考察自我-他人危机决策的信息加工过程的差异。实验一采用单因素实验设计探讨自我-他人危机决策的信息加工过程,结果表明:为自我决策组的平均阅读时间、平均注视时间、平均注视次数、平均凝视时间、平均回视次数都显著高于为他人决策组。实验二采用2(任务框架:积极,消极)x2(决策者角色:为自我、为他人)混合实验设计,结果表明:在积极框架下,为自我决策组平均阅读时间、平均注视时间、平均注视次数、平均凝视时间、平均回视次数显著高于为他人决策组;在消极框架下,两个组没有显著差异。总体表现为,自我-他人危机决策的信息加工过程存在差异,且受任务框架的影响。
关键词危机决策   决策者角色   任务框架   眼动技术  
The Information Processing Process of Crisis Decision-Making for Self and Others:Evidence from Eye Movement
Abstract: Crisis decision-making refers to the decisions making by decision-makers in crisis situations, that is in the limited conditions such as time, resources and information the quick judgment and behavioral response made by decision makers. In recent years, the researches of crisis decision-making are on the perspective of self-decision-making. In daily life, we also need to make decisions for others, such as doctors offer patients the most appropriate treatment. Many studies have shown that there are differences in self-other decision-making. Similarly, in the crisis, not only we need to make decisions for ourselves but also need to make decisions for the others. In other words, in facing the crisis those individuals who are in the crisis situations will making decisions for themselves in the first time to avoid property losses and to protect their life, leaders of crisis management will make decision for the others through the limited clues. Construal level theory proposed that high-level construal as relatively abstract, coherent, and superordinate mental representations, compared with low-level construal. Is it the same that making crisis decisions for ourselves and for others? This is also the focus of our study. The present study employed two experiments to investigate the self-other crisis decision-making process of information processing. In Experiment 1, the experiment design was an one-way (decision-makers’ role: self, other) within-subjects design. The materials were taken from Zheng (2007), modified with actual cases. These materials included individual’s decision tasks in the fire crisis. A total of 63 undergraduates participated in the experiment. Their eye movements were recorded with the iView X-RED eye tracker. The results showed that there were differences in self-other crisis decision-making process of information processing. Specifically, there were longer reading time, longer mean fixation time, more fixations, longer gaze duration and more regression for oneself than for others. Framing effect refers to different description on the same issue and lead to different decision making. It has been proved that the existence of framing effect in risky decision making, cross-time decision making, health and consumer decision making. What kind of differences it would have in self-others crisis decision making after we join the task framework? In Experiment 2, the experiment design was a 2 (decision-makers: self, others) × 2(task framework: positive, negative) mixed design. The decision-makers were the between-subjects factor, and the task framework was the within-subjects factor. The materials were taken from Zheng (2007), combined with the real cases happened in the golden week of 2006. These materials included the decision tasks of crisis encountered in outdoor activities. A total of 64 undergraduates participated in the experiment. Their eye movements were recorded with the iView X-RED eye tracker. The results showed that there were longer reading time, longer mean fixation time, more fixations, longer gaze duration and more regression for oneself than for others in the positive framework. And there had no differences in the negative framework. In conclusion, there had significant differences in self-other crisis decision-making, embodied in the differences of search time, depth and pattern for information. Positive task framework had significant influence on self-other crisis decision-making. There had no differences in the negative framework.
Keywords: Crisis decision-making   Decision makers’ roles   Task frame   Eye-movement technology  
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通讯作者: 王大伟
作者简介:
作者Email: wdw112@163.com

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