Psychological Science 2017, 40(6) 1372-1376 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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Latent profile analysis
Academic burden
Mathematics achievement
ZHANG Min-Jiang
QIE Cheng-Meng
Article by Yang,Y.W
Article by Zhang,M.J
Article by Qie,C.M



When it comes to the problem of primary school students' academic burden, a heated discussion has come up among the general public.The topic is not only related to the physical and mental health of pupils, but also the quality of students we cultivate. Thus, the exploration of the relationship between academic burden and academic achievement is necessary. In elementary school, mathematics is a subject with distinct characteristics, the mathematics achievement can reflect the student's number sense, logic, cognitive development level. Previous studies found that primary school students had mathematics learning burden that is heavy than other disciplines. Therefore, further explore the relationship between the primary school students' academic burden and the mathematics achievement is needed. There are many outstanding achievements in the study of the relationship between the students' academic burden and the mathematics achievement until now, but there are still some problems.First, no in-depth analysis of data. The data analysis and conclusions of the empirical study are not deep and detailed, and not carry out further study. Second, ignoring the qualitative differences between the students. When classifying the students, the researchers tend to divide the students into groups according to their academic achievements or grades. However, Faced with the same academic tasks, different students' academic burden is different, ignoring the differences in the students' groups make the solution to the learning burden problem have little effect. Thus, this study aim to explore the influence of academic burden on different classification of primary school students' math achievement. This study use latent profile analysis method and STEP-3 method analysis the data in detail, define different categories of students, clear the relationship between different types of students' mathematics achievement, and explore the impact of academic burden on different types of students.The data come from the Guangzhou sunshine education quality evaluation project in 2015, the project were selected sixth-grade students from 65 schools in Guangzhou, and each sixth grade class were randomly selected from each school. The program combined pencil-and-paper test method and on-line test method to evaluate the primary school students’ academic achievement and academic burden.The software used in the study was LatentGOLD5.1. Through the statistics of a large sample of data, paper draws the following conclusions: First, based on student performance in mathematics, student samples can be divided into three distinct types: good mathematics achievement, general mathematics achievement, poor mathematics achievement. respectively, the proportion in the total is 66.15%, 24.62% 9.23%; Moreover, the severity of the academic burden will cause somewhat impacts on students with different levels of mathematical achievement. In respect to the good mathematics achievement type, Academic burden, Learning time, Academic difficulty and Learning pressure can positively predict general mathematics achievement type and poor mathematics achievement type. In addition, the academic quality could negatively predict these two groups. This research has the following several enlightenment to the educational workers.First, educators should be aware of the potential heterogeneity of primary school students' math achievement, respect the individual differences of students, teach them knowledge with reasonable targets. Second, educators should clarify the internal mechanism of academic burden. Third, educators and parents need treat the essence of academic burden dialectically, educators should not only know that students' growth and development can not be separated from the reasonable academic burden, but need to establish the correct values of students' academic burden. Finally, Students' academic burden comes from the pressure of parents, teachers, schools and the social environment. So, education department could vigorously promote people on how to correctly understand the innate character of education, teachers and parents should set reasonable expectations for children. Finally, family unit school and social together to create a good condition for the healthy development of students.

Keywords Latent profile analysis   Academic burden   Mathematics achievement  
Received 2016-11-03 Revised 2017-06-02 Online: 2017-11-20 
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