Psychological Science 2018, (2) 258-263 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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【Key words】 reward
implicit memory
explicit memory
WU Yun
Article by Zhong,Y.B
Article by Wu,y
Article by Fan,w

The Effects of reward and self processing on memory


【Abstract】Reward is often defined as a kind of stimulus that can be acquired through a specific task. Previous show that rewards can improve memory processing procedure. What's more, the study found that information related to self can be better processed and memorized. As we all know, reward-processing and self-processing are two kinds of important cognitive- processing period, but there is no related research carries on the discussion about how to effect on memory at the same time. Although studies have proved that matching with reward and self both can promote the cognitive process, reward and self processing characteristics in the different level of memory processing has not examined.According to the model of parallel processing of reward and self, we assumes that reward processing and self processing can enhance memory effect at the same time. And according to the degree of participation of consciousness, we can divided memory into two levels: explicit memory and implicit memory. We want to examine the difference between self and reward processing from the different memory level. Experiments has control the interference effect of depression and self-esteem factors on memory. We proposed to adopt reward prompt paradigm, R/K paradigm and the signal detection theory to analysis the difference between reward and self processing effects on memory of explicit and implicit level.This experiment adopts Multiple-Variable Experiment. The two factors in experimental design is reward and self condition. we divide reward conditions into reward and no reward group, and self conditions into self and friend group. Experimental material comes from "The personality adjectives library". We select 160 personality adjectives about personality, including 80 positive and negative adjectives (arousal, significance degree and titer match). The experiment is carried out in a quiet lab. Subjects first fill in the relevant demographic information (gender, age), then complete the Beck depression rating scale and self-esteem scale. Formal experimental process present in the E - Prime2.0, the experiment was divided into three stages, the first stage is learning personality words , the second part is the interference phase, the third part is the memory test phase. The experimental total duration for 20 minutes.The results showed that: (1) In the level of explicit memory, reward and self processing promoted the memory effect, reward effect is significantly,p<0.001,ηp2= 0.373; self–reference effect is significantly,F(1,32) = 24.170,p<0.001,ηp2=0.329; Interactions effect of reward and self is marginally significant, F(1,32) = 3.227,p = 0.082,ηp2= 0.092; According to the previous literature, reward processing can promote cognitive process. In order to verify the reward of self-reference effect to strengthen, we define:b1= self reward group - self without reward;b2 = acquaintances reward group - acquaintances without reward Paired sample t test was carried out on the b1and b2, t (32) = 1.798, p < 0.05, We found that b1 significantly greater than the b2, the date illustrates the reward can enhance self-reference effect. (2) We found self-advantages in the implicit memory, but no reward processing effects on memory. Main effect of self conditions is significantly, F(1,32)=13.57,p<0.01,ηp2=0.304; Reward conditions is no significant main effect, F(1,32)=0.09,p=0.76; Reference conditions with reward conditions interaction effect is significantly, F(1,32)=4.898,p< 0.05,ηp2=0.136. Then ,we use simple effect analyze found that under the condition of reward, self-reference effect of implicit memory is significantly higher than acquaintances reference conditions, F(1,32)=13.17,p<0 .01. Under the condition of non-reward, implicit memory of self-reference effect is significantly higher than acquaintances reference conditions, F(1,32)=64.39,p<0.01; Under the condition of self, reward effect is not significant, F(1,32)=2.56,p>0.05. Conclusion: self relevant stimulus to promote the processing of implicit and explicit memory, reward stimulation only influence memory effects, the results support the independent parallel model, namely in the different level of memory, reward processing and self-reference processing has different processing mechanism.

Keywords 【Key words】 reward   self   implicit memory   explicit memory  
Received 2016-12-08 Revised 2017-07-16 Online: 2018-03-20 
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