Psychological Science 2018, (2) 292-297 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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SPT, SPT effect, Item-Specific Information, Relational Information
LI An-Zheng
LI Mei
LIN Wen-Yi
YU Li-Juan
Article by Li,A.Z
Article by Li,m
Article by Lin,W.Y
Article by Yu,L.J

The Encoding Mechanism of SPT Effect: Item-Specific and Item-Relational Information


It is well established that recall and recognition scores are enhanced when the participants are instructed to perform the action during encoding(subject-performed tasks, SPT), compared to the standard condition in which they only read or listen to the phrases(verbal tasks, VT). That is, compared with verbal tasks, the superior memory performance in subject-performed tasks is known as SPT effect.SPT effect was so significant and prevalent that it attracted great attention of researchers. Consecutively, four theories - the non-strategic processing theory, the multimodal encoding theory, the motor encoding theory and the episodic integration theory were proposed to explain SPT effect. Based on the above analysis, we considered that the divergences were that whether SPT enhances item-specific information or relational information. A large number of researchers have made a series of discussion to solve the divergence, which becomes the focus of current researches. Therefore, in order to explore the encoding mechanism of the SPT effects, this research combed the related researches about the item-specific information and the relational information. In the aspect of item-specific information, this paper analyzes the item-specific content of SPT enhanced, the research methods adopted and the reasons for SPT enhancing item-specific processing. Specifically, researchers adopted different test methods, and they all agreed that the action could advance the item specific information. In other words, the integration of action phrase as well as the specific information of the verb and noun, were enhanced when action were performed. The action phrases become more distinct, so in subsequent tests, the performance was better under the SPT encoding condition. In the aspect of rational information, the paper sorts out the relationship between the situations, the relationship between the project and the environment, and the role of the association in the SPT effect. The previous researches considered that the action does not improve the processing of episodic rational information, nor relational information associated with environment. However, there are differences but for category association, only three studies showed that SPT can enhance the category association processing, and a large number of studies have found that SPT does not promote the category association of information processing. Even when the word structure is obvious or inform the individuals the word structure, the use of VT on the category related information is better than that of SPT. As discussed above, researches using ARC scores to calculate categories of relevant information, which caused the different conclusions. Therefore, future researches can try to use different research methods to explore whether the category related processing contributes to the SPT effect. Although SPT can enhance the specific processing, but studies have not explored deeply. This mainly reflected in the following aspects. First, SPT enhanced the specific information of the verb and noun, whether there is a difference in quantity. Second, the reason why SPT advances the processing of item-specific information is inconsistent. Third, the relationship between the encoding and retrieval needs to be discussed. Therefore, the future researchers can further study the above aspects.

Keywords SPT, SPT effect, Item-Specific Information, Relational Information  
Received 2017-02-24 Revised 2017-08-14 Online: 2018-03-20 
Corresponding Authors: Lijuan Wang
About author:

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