Psychological Science 2018, (2) 423-429 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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Keywords
smokers
decisional balance of smoking
future orientation
willingness to quit smoking
action planning to quit smoking
Authors
CHEN Hai-De
CAO Ning-Meng
GAO Ling-Feng
LI Wei-Jian
LI Xin-Yu
PubMed
Article by Chen,H.D
Article by Cao,N.M
Article by Gao,L.F
Article by Li,W.J
Article by Li,X.Y

The Predictive Relations between Decisional Balance of Smoking and Action Planning to Quit: A Moderated Mediation Model

Abstract

The number of smoker in China is still large while most of them are unlikely to quit smoking. It has indicated that the action planning to quit smoking is significantly predicted by perceived risk of smoking. In fact, perceived pros and cons of smoking are coexistent for smokers. It is unknown about the relationship between decisional balance of smoking and action planning to quit smoking. Additionally, the dynamic process of smoking cessation from motivation to action often have multiple stages. The Rubicon model differentiates the process into four stages: predecisional phase, preactional phase, actional phase, and postactional phase. The conceptualization of two different mindsets that correspond to the predecisional phase and preactional phase are deliberative and implemental respectively. Accordingly, the smokers might weigh the pros and cons of smoking, which increasing willingness to quit (i.e., predecisional phase), and then make plan to quit (i.e., preactional phase). Moreover, future orientation which refers to the process that individuals think and plan for the future, plays an active role in substance abuse and healthy behavior. Given these, the present study aimed to investigate the prediction of decisional balance of smoking to action planning to quit smoking among smokers and the mediated role of willingness to quit, also to investigate moderated role of future orientation on the predictive relation between decisional balance of smoking and willingness to quit as well as relation between decisional balance of smoking and action planning to quit. Questionnaires were used to test hypotheses and a total of 340 current daily smokers participated in the present study. The questionnaires included the Decisional Balance Scale, Scale of Consideration of Future Consequences, and Willingness to Quit Smoking Questionnaire, Plan to Quit Smoking Questionnaire. The mediation and moderation analyses were conducted by using PROCESS macro for SPSS. The results indicated that: (1) The decisional balance of smoking significantly and positively predicted action planning to quit smoking among smokers. (2) The relationship between the decisional balance of smoking and action planning to quit smoking was mediated by willingness to quit smoking. Willingness to quit smoking, which was positively and significantly predicted by decisional balance of smoking, positively associated with action planning to quit smoking. (3) The moderated effect of future orientation on the relationship between the decisional balance of smoking and action planning to quit was marginally significant. For the smokers with lower level of future orientation, the decisional balance of smoking positively predict quitting plan; while for the smokers with higher level of future orientation, the relationship between them was insignificant. (4) The moderated effect of future orientation on the relationship between the decisional balance of smoking and willingness to quit was not significant. These findings were indicated that smokers experienced the predecisional phase and preactional phase from making decision to planning to quit smoking. It is critical transition point for action to quitting smoking. Meanwhile, the dynamic process of planning to quit smoking was moderated by future orientation. Further studies should use multiple methods and construct diverse models to explore the underlying mechanism of process of quit smoking.

Keywords smokers   decisional balance of smoking   future orientation   willingness to quit smoking   action planning to quit smoking  
Received 2017-06-21 Revised 2017-11-09 Online: 2018-03-20 
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Corresponding Authors: Hai-De CHEN
Email: chenhaide351@126.com
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