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psychological science  
 
 
2017, Vol.40 Num.6
Online: 2017-11-20


 
1282
Activation of Non-Target Language Differences Between Semantic Level and Phonological Level in Less Proficient Chinese-Uyghur Bilinguals
Abstract Bilingual individuals need to switch one language to the other to understand different language information in daily life, such as reading and listening,which is called bilingual comprehensive switching.Previous studies mainly investigate whether the non-target language was activated when bilinguals intended to process the target language,different researchers have inconsistent results with diverse methods. Therefore, this study was used to further investigate the activation of non-target language.Non-target language can be divided?into phonological level and semantic level,we explore the activation of these two levels with an immediate cross-language priming paradigm.In the end,the event-related brain potential (ERP) technique will be used to record the data. The experiment 1 takes the language switching direction,the area of the brain,the pair of words type as the independent variables.The P200 peak latency and the peak value of P200 are the dependent variables. The experiment 2 takes the language switching direction,the area of the brain,the pair of words type as the independent variables.The N400 peak latency and the peak value of N400 are the dependent variables. Twenty Chinese-Uyghur bilinguals participated in experiment 1,sixteen Chinese-Uyghur bilinguals participated in experiment 2,all of participants were Chinese natives,and Uigur was their unskilled second language.The phonological decision task was conducted in the Experiment 1.Target words (one language) were appeared immediately after prime words (the other language) which were phonologically related to the translative equivalents of target words (Experiment 1).Participants were followed the instruction carried out the phonological decision task.The conceptual decision task was conducted in the Experiment 2.Target words (one language) were semantically related to the translative equivalents of target words (Experiment 1). Participants were followed the instruction carried out the conceptual decision task. The behavior data and ERP data both were recorded and analyzed. The investigation results show that, in experiment 1,phonologically related target words?group?and?phonologically unrelated target?words group?are?significantly different,the switching direction L1–L2 and direction L2-L1 also are significantly different.We could conclude that phonological level of non-target language was automatically activated.There were significantly RTs and N400 difference between semantically related target words and semantically unrelated target words no matter the switching direction was L1–L2 or L2–L1. So there was strong evidence of cross-language semantic priming,and we found differences refer to spatial distribution of N400. Besides, the results provided evidence for the phonological priming asymmetry,with larger priming from L1 to L2 than the reverse,and different kinds of temporal and spatial P200 priming effect (the ERP difference between two types of target words,between two switching direction).For L1-L2 switching P200 priming effect was weaker and The P200 latency was earlier,The most significant activated region located in the right side of the frontal lobes.For L2-L1 switching P200 priming effect's most significant activated region located in the middle side of the frontal lobes. In conclusion,according to the results the phonological level of non-target language will be activated during the phonological decision task,and the switching cost was asymmetric.And strong evidence was found for the semantic level activation of non-target language during the conceptual decision task.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1282-1288 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 835KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1289
Time Course of Linguistic Information Extraction from Parafoveal Words During Eye Fixations in Chinese Reading
The visual field can be divided into three regions: the foveal region (the central 2°in of vision), the parafoveal region (extending out to 5°on either side of fixation), and the peripheral region (beyond the parafoveal region) during reading. Although readers mainly acquire information from foveal region, effective extraction of information from parafoveally visible words is also essential to skilled reading. While numerous studies have examined the acquisition of visual information form during fixational pauses during reading, little is known about how rapidly useful visual information is acquired from different gaze locations when reading non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese. Therefore, the present study used disappearing text paradigm to investigate the extraction of useful information from papafoveal words to the right (word n+1) and left (word n-1) of fixation in Chinese reading. We manipulated simultaneously both the location (word n+1 and word n-1) and display time (0ms and 40ms) for parpfoveal words. In the disappearing text condition, the word n+1 or word n-1 disappeared a fixed period after the beginning of fixation (0ms or 40ms following the onset of fixation). Eyelink2000was used to record the eye movements of 40 college students. All participants read sentences formed from regular sequences of two-character words and each sentence was between 6 and 8 words long. In order to examine the lexical processing, each sentence containing either a high or low frequency target word. The results suggested that there were some differences in the time needed for information capture between word n+1 and word n-1.Readers could obtain most or all of necessary information of word n+1 for normal lexical and reading processing in the early period of fixation on word n(40ms). However, the information extraction from word n-1 occurred at relatively late period of fixation on word n (later than 40ms). In particularly,(1)serious disruption on overall reading times was caused by word n+1 for 0ms displays compare to control condition, and more important, the disruptions on overall reading times caused by 0ms and 40ms displays for word n+1 disappearing have significant differences. It indicated the readers obtain information of word n+1 during early 40ms of fixation on word n; whereas for word n-1 disappearance, the disruptions on overall reading times caused by 0ms and 40ms were equal. The same tendency showed on fixation count and regression; (2)there was a bigger difference of frequency effect between 0ms and 40ms display for word n+1 than word n-1, which also suggested readers obtain information of word n+1 during early 40ms of fixation on word n, thereby promoting the lexical processing of reading. To conclude, the information of word n+1 and word n-1 were both very important for Chinese reading, and the information was acquired at different period of fixation on word n. Readers could obtain information of word n+1 for normal lexical and reading processing in the early period of fixation on word n, but the information extraction from word n-1 occurred at relatively late period of fixation on word n. These results could be better accounted by processing gradient models in which there is some temporal overlap in the linguistic processing of a fixated and parafoveally visible word during reading.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1289-1295 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 588KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1296
The Intermediate Role of Radicals in Chinese Characters Recognition: ERP Evidence for the MIA Model
Words whose processing are primed by a word that share a sub-lexical unite such as syllable and radical are responded to faster than words whose processing are not primed, which reflects an intermediate, activation role of the priming sub-lexical units. On the other hand, words with a high-frequency syllable, elicit higher N400 of event-related brain potentials (ERPs), reflecting greater lateral inhibition associated with larger neighborhood. To explore the controversial intermediate roles of sub-lexical units, the present study examined whether the number of simple radicals in the fragments of Chinese characters could modulate ERPs. The present study recorded ERPs elicited by radical- and stroke-deleted(RD and SD) fragments of Chinese characters, while the participants performed a delayed character matching task on the fragment stimuli and the probe characters that followed a stimulus. The RD fragments were created by deleting a simple radical from a root character that contained in average 4.66 simple radicals. TheSD fragments, which contain at least one radical, were created by deleting the same number of strokes as deleting the corresponding radical, and deleting at random except that the deleted strokes belonged to as many different radicals of the root character as possible; the SD fragments nevertheless contain at least one radical. A radical-deleted and a stroke-deleted fragments were created from one root character only which was drawn in Kai Ti, and in total two types of 200 fragments each were generated with 200 root characters. Two complementary stimulus sets, one for each participant, were formed based on the two types of fragments. Half of one type was combined with fragments of the other type created from the remaining root characters. Therefore, the probability of every character being presented under each condition was balanced across all participants. The main results showed that the SD fragments elicited a smaller P200 component and a larger N400-like component than did the RD fragments. These results demonstrated an intermediate role of simple radicals in the recognition of complex Chinese characters, given equal numbers of strokes in the two types of fragments. Further, the SD fragments contained fewer intact radicals, presumably having a larger number of radical neighbors again due to fewer radicals than do the RD fragments.Thus, as expected a higher N400 was elicited by the SD fragments as compared with the RD fragments. A lower P200 usually reflects a larger number of neighbors activated by the stimuli, and so it could reflect a larger number of neighbors associated with the SD fregraments. The N400 effect is interpreted in a multilayer interactive-activation model as reflecting relatively stronger competition from the neighbors of the SD characters . Radicals should be embedded into the multilayer model as sub-lexical units. The P200 effect is interpreted as reflecting the number of neighbors of the stimuli.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1296-1301 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 702KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1302
The Influence of Semantic Familiarity on Metaphorical and Literal Meanings’ Access in Sentence Processing
In everyday life we always try to get the metaphorical beyond the literal meanings of sentences we come across. Metaphor is a kind of frequently used language expression, also a basic way of thinking for human surviving. So how is metaphor processed? Whether the metaphorical meanings can be accessed independent from the literal meanings or they’re based on the access of the literal meanings. Different from Searle’s Hierarchical Hypothesis (1993) and Glucksberg et al.’ Parallel Hypothesis (1982), Giora’s Graded Salience Hypothesis (2003) emphasized the importance of semantic salience in metaphor comprehension, if the metaphorical meanings were salient or familiar to readers, they can be comprehended prior to literal meanings and vice versa. The current study aimed to investigate the influence of semantic familiarity of sentences on the metaphor processing using behavioral and ERPs methods and tried to resolve the theoretical disputes. Experiment 1 employed a sentential violation paradigm to investigate the behavioral effects of familiarity on metaphor processing. We selected 28 nouns as the subjects of familiar sentences, and the other 28 nouns as the subjects of novel sentences. Then we made a metaphorical and a literal sentence for each noun, and a related incorrect metaphorical or literal version. So we made 224 sentences in total, which were screened and split into 4 lists. Each list contained the same number of sentences for each condition and was presented to a participant to counterbalance the sequence effects. Participants were asked to judge the acceptability of the sentences by key pressing and the reaction time (RT) and accuracy rate (ACC) were recorded. The results showed that the RT to judge the metaphorical sentences was faster and the ACC was higher for the familiar sentences, but for the novel sentences, the RT to process the literal sentences was faster and the ACC was higher. These results showed that the familiarity could modulate the processing of metaphorical meanings, and metaphorical meanings could be accessed prior to the literal processing. To further explore which processes of sentence processing the semantic familiarity can modulate, experiment 2 used high time-resolution ERPs with the similar experimental design to examine if the familiarity would influence the deflection of N400 or P600. The results showed that the metaphorical and literal processing elicited comparable N400 and P600 effects for novel sentences, while metaphorical processing induced enhanced N400 and reduced P600 effects for familiar sentences relative to literal processing. N400 is concerned to be correlated with the efforts of semantic retrieval, analysis (Kutas & Hillyard, 1980), the enhanced N400 for novel metaphorical sentences processing means difficulty of analyzing the semantic information. P600 tends to reflect the sentential reanalysis, integration or reflection (Holcomb, 1988), so the reduced P600 in familiar metaphorical processing might suggest that participants fail to deepen the processing of metaphor when be confronted with the abnormal sentences since they have difficulty in earlier sematic processing stage. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that participants can access metaphorical meanings efficiently, when the metaphor is familiar to them. While the metaphor is novel, the processing of metaphorical meaning may be based on the access of literal meanings. These results provide clear evidence for Giora’s Graded Salience Hypothesis.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1302-1308 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 732KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1309
The Effect of Task Regularity and Knowability of Execution Situation on Prospective Memory: Evidences from Behavioral and Eye-Movement Study
Prospective memory represents the ability of remembering to carry out an intended action in the future. In a typical prospective memory experiment, participants are required to engage in two tasks: the ongoing task and prospective task. According to the nature of the prospective memory cues, there are two types of prospective memory: time-based (TBPM) and event-based prospective memory (EBPM).There are two kinds of processes that can support prospective memory: preparatory attentional processes and memory processes theory (PAM) and multiple processes theory. The PAM assumes that prospective memory retrieval requires resource-demanding preparatory attentional processes, whereas the multiple process theory assumes that retrieval can also occur spontaneously; But according to the regularity of prospective memory, there are also two types of prospective memory: regular prospective memory and irregular prospective memory. Lots of researchers had indicated that regular prospective memory could effectively improve prospective memory results. But those studies did not rule out the possibility of practice effects. Therefore, in the case of the possibility of practice effects, we explored the effect and mechanism of regular prospective memory. Some researchers argued that the knowability of execution situation may affect prospective memory. Therefore, we separated regular prospective memory into two conditions: one was that we knew the regularities, the other was the complete opposite. Our aim was to detailedly and deeply explore the effect and mechanism of regular prospective memory. In addition, we employed a new eyetracking paradigm to concretely investigate the impact of regular environmental cues within a visual prospective memory task. Experiments were programmed by Experiment Bulider. The present study adopted a single factor design. A total of 53 college students (18 no regularity, 17 unknown regularity, 18 known regularity) participated the experiment. Participants were asked to respond by pressing the key (A or B), but when meeting the prospective memory cues they should press the specified key (C). The hypothesis was that both accuracy and reaction speed of regular prospective memory (including unknown regularity and known regularity) were better than irregular prospective memory. During the course of experiments, Ongoing task and PM task were done simultaneously by participants. Participants’ behavioral data and eye-movement data were recorded by computer automatically. The results showed that both accuracy and reaction speed of regular prospective memory were better than irregular prospective when the execution situation was known. But there were no difference when the regular situation was unknown. The eye-movement data showed that participants tend to pay more attention to prospective memory cues and regular situation when regular situation was known. The main stream theories could not explain the results. But cognitive resources limitation model argue that cognitive resources were limited. According to situation, participants could allocate the cognitive resources in a flexible style. When the regular situation was known, participants could make a plan in the light of whether the regular situation would appear. When regular cues were not presented, they did not allocate much more cognitive resources to prospective memory tasks. However, when regular situation was coming, they would pay more attrition to prospective memory cues.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1309-1315 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 790KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1316
The Role of Central Executive Sub-functions in Prospective Duration Judgment
Time is a fundamental property of matter. Duration judgment is of great significance for human beings to survive and adapt to environments. Extended resource allocation model of duration judgment considers that duration judgment primarily depends on attentional and working memory resources. The demonstration bidirectional interference effect between duration judgment and non-temporal task that associated with executive processes in dual-task paradigm of time and non-time provide support for that duration judgment is affected by central executive function. Miyake et al. (2002) identified three relatively independent sub-functions of central executive function, which they termed “switching”, “inhibition” and “updating”. Switching involves shifting attention back and forth between multiple tasks or cognitive operations. Inhibition is a basic executive control process that includes suppressing dominant, automatic responses and resisting distractions. Updating refers to updating information in working memory contents by people as needed. When appropriate, information that is no longer current or relevant is replaced with newer information. Researches abroad on the relationship between duration judgment and central executive function show that the effects of different central executive sub-functions on duration judgment are not the same. Previous researches were limited for deciding which of two models better describes the empirical data. Therefore, we established structural equation modeling as a methodological approach to test the relationship between different executive sub-functions and duration judgment, the extent of the impact of executive sub-functions on duration judgment, and further investigate the validity of the common timing and the distinct timing hypotheses. The experiment of this study included three executive function tasks and two different lengths of perspective duration judgment tasks. The three executive tasks which represented shifting function (Local-Global task), inhibition function (Stroop task) and updating function (N-back task) were considered to well reflect level of each sub-function in previous studies, respectively. Perspective duration judgment tasks included short (2s) and long (5s) duration production tasks. In experiment, we adopted within subjects design that all participants were instructed to finish 2s duration production task, shifting task, inhibition task, updating task, and 5s duration production task in sequence. In order to investigate which sub-function(s) was/were involved into perspective timing, and whether there was a difference between short and long duration, the experimental data were submitted to structural equation modeling. The result showed that the accuracy and the variability of both long and short perceptive duration judgment was primarily moderated by updating, while the variability of long perceptive duration judgment was additionally moderated by inhibition. In this study, perceptive duration judgment was not affected by switching. In summary, the effects of three executive sub-functions on perceptive duration judgment in short-duration and long-duration conditions were different. Perceptive duration judgment was moderated by updating in short duration condition and by both inhibition and updating in long duration condition. The outcome of this study also supported “different” mechanism hypothesis of duration judgment.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1316-1321 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 663KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1322
The Effect of Different Object Orientation Conditions on the construction of Intrinsic Frame of Reference System under in Virtual Scene
The intrinsic spatial frame of reference system (FoRs) theory suggests that people memorize objects’ locations according to a FoRs based on object-to-object relationships. Li & Zhang (2011) demonstrated that the orientation-coincidence affected the construction of intrinsic FoRs in spatial memory with real symmetric scene applied. However, no significant difference was found in the chances to be the dominant axis of intrinsic FoRs between the symmetric axis and the coincident orientation during the retrieval phase in the aforementioned study. In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate participants’ responses to virtual scenes during both the coding and the retrieval phases of memory, under the orientation-coincidence and orientation-predominance conditions respectively. Forty-eight participants took part in this study, and each of them finished one experiment only. Each experiment included a learning phase and a testing phase. In the learning phase, participants studied a virtual symmetric scene consisted of seven objects from a single viewpoint, while their eye movements were recorded using the German SMI iView X Hi-Speed Eye Tracking System (sampling rate=1250Hz, refresh rate=100Hz). Subsequently in the testing phase, participants were required to perform the partial-scene-recognition (PSR) task in which they needed to judge whether the directional relationship in the partial scene was the same as the learned scene. In Experiment 1 (that is orientation-coincidence condition), there were seven virtual buildings that shared the coincident orientation in the learning scene. While in Experiment 2 (that is orientation-predominance condition), a different scene was learned, in which one building with clear orientation was surrounded with six objects with no orientation. In both experiments, the object orientation was set at the direction of 135°. All the participants observed the scenes along the 315° direction. The symmetric axis was set at the axis of 0°-180°. The difference between the observed percentage and the a priori percentage of inter-object eye movements and the response time in PSR task was analyzed using ANOVA. In Experiment 1, for the difference between the observed percentage and the a priori percentage of inter-object eye movements, results showed no significant difference between the coordination system including the coincident orientation of objects (45°, 135°, 225°, and 315°) and that including the symmetric axis (0°, 90°, 180°, and 270°). And no significant difference was found between the mean response time to partial scenes aligned with the direction of coincident orientation and that aligned with the symmetric axis. In Experiment 2, the coordination system including the symmetric axis caused a significantly larger difference between the observed percentage and the a priori percentage of inter-object eye movements than the coordination system including the predominant orientation. At the same time, the mean response time to partial scenes aligned with the direction of symmetric axis was significantly quicker than that aligned with the predominant orientation. The results of the two experiments indicated that the orientation-coincidence of the objects in the virtual symmetric scene affected the construction of intrinsic FoRs in virtual symmetric scene. However, different effect was observed under the orientation-predominance condition that participants were inclined to choose the symmetric axis as the intrinsic axis. In conclusion, the influence of objects’ orientations on the intrinsic FoRs is limited to certain circumstances.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1322-1327 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 847KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1328
Effects of Indoor Illuminance on Cognitive Performance: The Mediating Role of Subjective Mood and Alertness
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of indoor Illuminance on healthy adults’ cognitive performance, subjective mood and alertness during daytime office hours. In addition, this study also examined whether the relationship between daytime light exposure and cognitive performance is mediated by subjective mood and alertness in healthy adults. A single factor between-subject design with Illuminance at eye level (300 lx vs 1200 lx) as the independent variable was employed in the current study. A total of 106 participants took part in the formal experiment according to some strict selection criteria, such as chronotype, medical and sleep disorders, general health, life habits, affective disorders, smoking, drug consumption, body mass index, shift work and transmeridian flights during last 2 months. Based on previous findings, the present study hypothesized that exposure to bright light would promote task performance compared to the dim light, and bright light would have a beneficial effect on positive mood and subjective alertness. In addition, it was also hypothesized that subjective alertness mediates the relationship between bright light exposure and three indicators of cognitive performance: working memory, long-term memory and inhibitory capacity; positive mood mediates the relationship between bright light exposure and three indicators of cognitive performance of working memory, long-term memory and inhibitory capacity. Results showed that participants responded faster on Go/No go and 2-Back task under bright light exposure compared to the dim light exposure, while there was no significant difference on accuracy of these two tasks; in contrast, no significant effect of indoor Illuminance on Long-term memory task was observed in the current research. Subjective alertness and positive mood were also significantly improved in the high illuminance (1200 lx) in comparison with the low illuminance condition(200 lx). Correlation analyses among Illuminance levels, positive mood, negative mood, subjective alertness and task performance (Go/No go, 2-Back) revealed that there were positive correlations between Illuminace level and positive mood, subjective alertness and Go/No go task; negative correlations between Illuminance level and subjective alertness, Illuminance level and Go/No go task, Illuminance level and 2-Back task, positive mood and subjective alertness. The multivariate stepwise regression analysis indicated that Illuminance and subjective alertness were significant factors in predicting Go/No go performance, and also Illuminance and positive mood were significant factors in predicting subjective alertness. Based on correlation and multivariate stepwise regression analysis, a relational model was established and results showed that the effect of indoor Illuminance during daytime on Go/No go task was fully mediated by subjective alertness, and the relationship between Illuminance and subjective alertness was partially mediated by positive mood. It should be noted, however, that no mediating effect for negative mood was found in both the relationships between Illuminance and cognitive tasks, the subjective alertness and indoor Illuminance. These findings suggest that even during daytime office hours, bright light exposure did have a beneficial effect on task performance, positive mood and subjective alertness. Additionally, subjective alertness was a key variable in the effect of indoor Illuminance during daytime on cognitive functions, especially for the attention-related performance.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1328-1334 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 655KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1335
Affordance: a Perspective from Mirror Neurons
In 1979, Gibson first introduced the term “affordance”, which refers to the behavior possibility that environment provide to in the process of the interaction between individuals and environment. The relationship between the objects and mind caused attention and researches in the field of cognitive and human-computer interaction. Riches of evidence on affordance come from the field of neuroscience and behavioral science. On the neuroscience side, studies of brain imaging revealed that when individual was observing an object some cortexes active. For example, in the process of perception of tools’ affordance promoter and parietal cortex activate. And on the behavioral side, compatibility paradigms were used to investigate the issues of affordance. For example, individual with precision grip for small objects responded faster than with power grip. However, the physiological basis of affordance remains unknown. Fortunately, the finding of mirror neurons contributes to explaining the physiological mechanisms of affordance. Mirror neurons refer to the neurons that fire when the animal observe and act the same action as what others perform. These neurons were observed not only in monkey not but also in humans. In humans, the cortexes involving in mirror neurons are premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobule. The potential relationship between mirror neurons and affordance provide a new view to further answer this question and to understand the physiological basis of the affordance. Further explore more accurate neural basis of affordance from the perspective of mirror neurons is beneficial for us to deeply make sense of the phenomenon of human psychological behavior. Objects do not elicit only one kind of affordance but multiple affordances. An object activates affordance related with grasping or touching (such as object size, orientation) and affordance related to how to facilitate its function. Firstly, different kinds of affordances ranging from structural affordance and functional affordance are introduced. Structural affordance relates to properties of objects that can vary (such as the orientation and angle of an object), and functional affordance relates to properties of objects that keep constant between different experiences of individuals (such as the way to catch a cup). Then, the relations between different kind of affordance and mirror neurons are analyzed. Mirror neurons are the physiological basis of behavioral goal and affordance can be regarded as the behavioral possibility that can be used by humans, the mirror neuron system includes the neural pathways of the model that illustrate affordance and the model of the mirror neurons also contains the process of extraction affordance. So, mirror neurons may be the physiological basis of affordance. Thirdly, the assumptions of the mirror neurons existing in different neural pathways are the physiological basis of affordance are proposed. Anatomical studies pointed out that affordance related to the pathways in dorsal stream and two different streams (dorso-dorsal stream and ventro-dorsal stream) exist in dorsal stream. Furthermore, dorso-dorsal stream subserves the on-line visual information of objects and ventro-dorsal stream facilitates how to use the objects. So it is suggested that mirror neurons in the dorso-dorsal stream subserve structural affordance and mirror neurons in the ventro-dorsal stream subserve functional affordance.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1335-1339 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 768KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1340 Xiao-Xing MA Wang li
Ergonomic Research on the Fine Positioning of Gaze-Assisted Bubble Cursor
Abstract Most research for computer input consider eye gaze for pointing as an intuitive and promising interaction. The big obstacle for eye gaze as pointing device is the low accuracy. To improve on that, the current study proposed gaze-assisted bubble cursor as a more effective way combing a user’s gaze with bubble cursor. And we carried out an empirical experiment to verify the effect of gaze-assisted bubble cursor (compared to the point cursor and the bubble cursor). In this paper, we reviewed the related work for eye gaze as pointing device and the pointing enhancement technology. Then, we present gaze-assisted bubble cursor, which take full advantage of bubble cursor’s effective width and avoid the visual disturbance, as shown in Fig.2. After that, we described a controlled experiment. The experiment testbed was developed in C# and the interface of experiment as shown in Fig.3. A SMI iViewX-RED eye tracker (0.5° accuracy and 120Hz sampling rate) was used to gather gaze data. To make eye gaze more stable, an adaptive low-pass filtering algorithm was used. The experiment employed a 3×3 mixed model design. The two manipulated variables were as follows: (a) For the cursor type: point cursor, bubble cursor, gaze-assisted bubble cursor; (b) For the target location: close range target in the vertical direction, close range target in the horizontal direction, long range target in the horizontal direction. Sixty right-handed volunteers participated in the study (33 females and 27 males), and randomly assigned to 3 levels of cursor type. For each group, participants were asked to finish 120 times of pointing task as soon as possible on the premise of guaranteeing accuracy of target acquisition, with the accuracy, the task time and the task load index (NASA-TLX) were recorded. The mean and standard deviation under each condition and satisfaction evaluation were shown in Table 1 and Table2. The ANOVA results showed: 1) gaze-assisted bubble cursor outperform the point cursor on the performance (p<.001) and get lower temporal demand 2) gaze-assisted bubble cursor is inferior to bubble cursor in the task time (p<.05) and get higher effort 3) There was significant difference among the different target location, and the target location has the greatest effect on gaze-assisted bubble cursor. Based on the aforementioned results, it can be concluded that gaze-assisted bubble cursor get higher accuracy indeed and get the same level of the bubble cursor which one of most promising techniques. Moreover, gaze is promising to bridge the gap between a user and a distant display which traditional mouse input does not apply well especially for the disabled. In summary, these findings provide a new thought for the future research on optimizing the gaze-assisted pointing technique. Key words gaze-assisted pointing, bubble cursor, pointing augmented, fine positioning
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1340-1346 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 710KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1347
Timeflow: Concept, Dimension and Influencing Factors
A plenty of research has studied the relationship of time and consumer behaviors, but pay little attention on the time process of consumption experience. Timeflow is such a time process of the behavior experience when people perceive during an current activity. Correspondingly, this review is organized around three questions: (1) What is timflow; (2) What are the factors that may influence individuals’timeflow; (3)How timeflow affects people's behavior. Based on the literature, timeflow is constituted by five dimensions: the setting up of external scenario, the coordination of body skills, the initial perception of rules, the gradual integrate of target affective, and the thorough association of cultural meanings. Furthermore, there exists a relationship of coupling between five dimensions of timeflow: the setting up of external scenario is not only the foundation of target affective, but also provides effective guarantee for the association of cultural meanings; the coordination of body skills inspires and promotes the thorough association of cultural meanings for things; the initial perception of rules forms information guide for people to understand the time experience process. Accordingly, harmonious coupling relationship among five dimensions can inspire people to form a joyful time to experience the process, then have a positive timeflow and improve people’s happiness. Factors that may infuence individual timeflow are discussed from the perspective of perception and emotion. On one hand, people’s perception of time which is positive or negative determines the process of people’s experience of time. Negative emotional stimuli can accelerate people's internal clock unconsciously and change people's time perception, then forms negative timeflow. Positive and neutral emotional stimuli do not have this effect. On the other hand, emotional impact on time perception is explained by the distribution of attention: under positive emotion, people's attention mainly focus on the things that make oneself happy which makes people reduce the attention to time and underestimate duration of time, so people always form a short but happy timeflow. However, people want to finish unpleasant things under negative emotion which makes people pay more attention to time; then people always feel time is so long that forms a long and unpleasant timeflow. Timeflow also influences people's shopping experiences and happy experiences which follows the rule of double kink value function. Double kink value function of time refers that moderate blocks of time is valued in accordance with increasing marginal utility, large blocks of time is valued in accordance with diminishing marginal utility, and the value of small blocks time is indifference. The relationship between five dimensions of timeflow and the double kink value of timeflow have been reviewed in this paper. Therefore, future research could undertake empirical studies of the deep coupling relationship between five dimensions of timeflow and explore how "double kink" value function of time influences people's consumption behavior such as decision-making.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1347-1352 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 390KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1353
Goal-directed episodic future thinking
Episodic future thinking(EFT) is a projection of the self into the future to re-experience an evevt. It plays a significant role in intention, planning, decision making and goal-striving which benefit goal attainment. Compared to non-goal directed EFT, goal-directed EFT rates higher on vividness and affective characteristics, and more in agreement with memories from past events. In conclusion, goal-directed EFT benefits goal attainment, which in turn, benefits EFT. According to previous research, goal-directed EFT can split into process-simulation and outcome-simulation which enhance goal pursuit in different ways. Process-simulation allow an individual to keep desired goals in mind, integrate potentially complex information, and make decisions about how to overcome an obstacle or exert a plan, which facilitate the link between intentions and actions. Outcome-simulation focus on the affective and reward-related facets of future goals, individuals with outcome-simulation are able to pre-experience what it would feel like to attain a goal, compare different hypothetical outcome scenarios, make decisions cogruent with long-term goals. The two types of goal-directed EFT are not totally isolate, instead, they need to function together. When participants imagined going through a sequence of steps necessary to achieve the personal goal, regions of the default network could form funtional networks with regions of the frontoparietal control network; while when participants imagined events they associated with actually attaining a goal, default network regions flexibly coupled with reward-processing regions. Besides the reaearch about neural networks, there is also a growing research in specific regions, for example, ventral medial prefrontal cortex(vmPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex(PCC). At present, research found vmPFC active more in condition of goal-directed EFT, there are two main possibliliyies:One is that mPFC can contribute to the subjective appraisal of the personal relevance of mental contents, resulting in an abstract representation of their affective meaning or value that may be of critical importance to guide later thoughts, decisions, and behaviors; Another is that the mPFC mediates the integration of imagined experiences within higher-order autobiographical knowledge structures. According to Construal level theory(CLT), temporal distance can influence the degree of abstraction of mental representation. Specifically speaking, when the tempoal distance is near, we usally do process-simulation, when temporal distance is far,we we usally do outcome-simulation. In the future, we should study how to keep balance between these two types of goal-directed EFT to make better dicesion and whether it is the same under different condition. People do change with time, so are their goals and EFT. Research found old people and young people have significant difference when they do EFT tasks and their goals, future studies needed to invistigate whether goal-directed EFT change as well as people’s EFT and their goals. At last but not the least, there is evidence show that direct EFT is more related to people’s current concern,future studies should examine if there is any relationship between the frequency of directed EFT and the improtance of goals.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1353-1358 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 275KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1359
Application of Decision Tree to Explore the Interrelations of Affective Diatheses in Contemporary College Students
Affective diathesis refers to the individual’s emotional psychological quality. The college students’ affective diathesis questionnaire has six sub-questionnaires including thirty-three different kinds of affects. A large-scale investigation on the affective diathesis was administered to 11982 college students involving 100 colleges and universities of 14 major cities. With the purpose of more convenient, in-depth understanding of the affective diathesis of college students, this paper uses the decision tree algorithm to predict the affective diathesis of college students and their subordinate affections based on the research above. Decision tree is a supervised classification algorithm for data classification in the field of data mining. Through the approach of creating a classification function or classification model by learning the sample set, the function or classification model can map data records to one category, which can be used for the prediction of data classification. The decision tree consists of decision nodes (also called root nodes), branches (approach decision), and leaves (finally result), making themselves into a tree structure, which represents the final classification result (each approach represent one kind of result). In present study, each node in the tree represents a property of the analysis object such as moral affectivity, self-improvement affectivity and so on. Moreover, each branch represents a possible value for this attribute. Therefore, the approach from the root node to the leaf node corresponds to a reasonable rule. These rules are usually described in the form of If-then. The combination of the attribute and the value of attribute formed along the path from the root node of the decision tree constitutes the part represents “if”, then the category marked by the leaf node forms the “then” part of the rule, which draw the conclusion of the rule. The specific affectivity and various affectivities based on the score it has got is divided into five grades, which from bad to good is "worse", "poor", "general", "good", "excellent". Actually, the data set is divided into a sample set and a test set, and the software called Weka can generate a decision tree model by using the sample set as a data source to analyze the relationship between attributes. At the same time Weka uses the test set to evaluate that whether the generated decision tree is suitable for the fact that the result of classification matches the expected. This paper established the decision tree model for affective diathesis, including moral affectivity, life affectivity and affective intelligence respectively. The results showed: (1) Decision tree can effectively predict the affective diathesis of college students as well as their subordinate affectivity, and could achieve a better classification effect than that before. (2) According to the extraction rule of attribute importance, the moral affectivity has the greatest influence on the affective diathesis than the other, and the life affectivity follows; The responsibility affectivity has a quite impact on moral affectivity to some degree; Self-improvement affectivity has a stronger influence on the emotional affectivity than many other affectivity; Finally, The capability of understanding others’ affectivity has a quite impact on affective intelligence. In short, for college students, to cultivate their affective diathesis, educators can target to cultivate their moral feelings and emotional life. And to improve moral affection and life affection, we can focus on responsibility and self-improvement affections respectively. To develop emotional intelligence, the most important ability was the ability of understanding others’ emotions.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1359-1364 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 770KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1365
The Relationship among Previous Academic Achievement,Academic Motivation and Strategies: the Mediating Effect of Academic Emotions
Academic Emotion refers to various emotional experiences related to students' academic activities in teaching and learning activities. Positive academic emotions can help students to cultivate active learning attitude, and to promote students' health development in both physical and mental. Academic emotions can affect learning process and academic achievement, but the success and failure in learning can also affect students' cognitive evaluation and academic emotions, which is a causal circulation among cognition, emotion, motivation variables. The influence of academic emotions on academic achievement and the mediation mechanism has been confirmed by many researchers, but research about the influence of previous academic achievement on academic emotion is not enough, especially the relationship and mechanism of the variables are not clear, and the existing studies are scattered. Under the background of performance value education background in China, more consideration should be given the adverse effect of previous academic achievement on academic emotions. High school students are in a critical period of learning, to get good grades is the common expectations of parents, teachers and high school students themselves. Therefore, it is necessary to study high school students, and systematically explore the influence of academic performance on academic emotion, learning motivation and learning strategies. In the present study, Academic Emotions Scale, Learning Motivation Questionnaire and Learning Strategies Questionnaire were adopted to investigate 670 high school students, and used non-parametric bias-corrected percentile Bootstrap method to study the relationship among previous academic achievement, academic motivation and learning strategies as well as the mediating effect of academic emotion. Results are as follows: (1) Previous academic achievement was positively correlated with positive-high arousal emotions and positive-low arousal emotions (p<.01), and were negatively correlated with negative-low arousal emotions (p<.01); Previous academic achievement was positively correlated with internal goal orientation and task value (p<.01), and was positively correlated with capability belief (p<.05); Previous academic achievement was positively correlated with meta-cognitive strategy and resource management strategy (p<.01). (2) The nonparametric bias-corrected percentile Bootstrap method was used to analyze the mediating effect of academic emotions, indicating that positive emotions (positive-high arousal emotions and positive-low arousal emotions) was fully mediated the relationship among previous academic achievement,academic motivation and learning strategies, and negative emotions (negative-low arousal emotions) was partly mediated the relationship among antecedents of academic achievement,academic motivation and learning strategies. The result is further verified in another path of academic emotion model, especially the control-value theory and the cognitive-motivation model, and enriched the localization theory of academic emotions. In addition, the research results have implications for our educational practice: on the one hand, we need to use multiple evaluation methods to evaluate students' academic achievement, to cultivate more positive emotions, which can enhance internal motivation and encourage students to use advanced learning strategies; on the other hand, when the examination of the students is poor, if they can improve the level of learning their motivation and strategy, can effectively prevent the negative effects caused by bad exam. In addition, we can also cultivate students' emotion regulation ability to stimulate their enthusiasm for learning and improve their learning methods.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1365-1371 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 770KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1372
The?relationship?between?academic?burden?and?mathematics?achievement?of?primary?school?students:?A?Latent?profile?analysis
When it comes to the problem of primary school students' academic burden, a heated discussion has come up among the general public.The topic is not only related to the physical and mental health of pupils, but also the quality of students we cultivate. Thus, the exploration of the relationship between academic burden and academic achievement is necessary. In elementary school, mathematics is a subject with distinct characteristics, the mathematics achievement can reflect the student's number sense, logic, cognitive development level. Previous studies found that primary school students had mathematics learning burden that is heavy than other disciplines. Therefore, further explore the relationship between the primary school students' academic burden and the mathematics achievement is needed. There are many outstanding achievements in the study of the relationship between the students' academic burden and the mathematics achievement until now, but there are still some problems.First, no in-depth analysis of data. The data analysis and conclusions of the empirical study are not deep and detailed, and not carry out further study. Second, ignoring the qualitative differences between the students. When classifying the students, the researchers tend to divide the students into groups according to their academic achievements or grades. However, Faced with the same academic tasks, different students' academic burden is different, ignoring the differences in the students' groups make the solution to the learning burden problem have little effect. Thus, this study aim to explore the influence of academic burden on different classification of primary school students' math achievement. This study use latent profile analysis method and STEP-3 method analysis the data in detail, define different categories of students, clear the relationship between different types of students' mathematics achievement, and explore the impact of academic burden on different types of students.The data come from the Guangzhou sunshine education quality evaluation project in 2015, the project were selected sixth-grade students from 65 schools in Guangzhou, and each sixth grade class were randomly selected from each school. The program combined pencil-and-paper test method and on-line test method to evaluate the primary school students’ academic achievement and academic burden.The software used in the study was LatentGOLD5.1. Through the statistics of a large sample of data, paper draws the following conclusions: First, based on student performance in mathematics, student samples can be divided into three distinct types: good mathematics achievement, general mathematics achievement, poor mathematics achievement. respectively, the proportion in the total is 66.15%, 24.62% 9.23%; Moreover, the severity of the academic burden will cause somewhat impacts on students with different levels of mathematical achievement. In respect to the good mathematics achievement type, Academic burden, Learning time, Academic difficulty and Learning pressure can positively predict general mathematics achievement type and poor mathematics achievement type. In addition, the academic quality could negatively predict these two groups. This research has the following several enlightenment to the educational workers.First, educators should be aware of the potential heterogeneity of primary school students' math achievement, respect the individual differences of students, teach them knowledge with reasonable targets. Second, educators should clarify the internal mechanism of academic burden. Third, educators and parents need treat the essence of academic burden dialectically, educators should not only know that students' growth and development can not be separated from the reasonable academic burden, but need to establish the correct values of students' academic burden. Finally, Students' academic burden comes from the pressure of parents, teachers, schools and the social environment. So, education department could vigorously promote people on how to correctly understand the innate character of education, teachers and parents should set reasonable expectations for children. Finally, family unit school and social together to create a good condition for the healthy development of students.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1372-1376 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 542KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1377
Relationship between the characteristics of earliest memory and the number of early memories in Chinese cultural context
Childhood amnesia refers to the difficulty that adults experience in recalling events from their infancy and early childhood. Some researchers argued that in order to better understand childhood amnesia, we should not only ask participants to recall their earliest memory, but also examine the accessibility of a range of memories from the early phases in our lives (Nelson & Fivush, 2004). Peterson, Wang and Hou (2009) found that children with earlier first memories were better able to retrieve more childhood memories overall. However, they only focused on the relationship between the age of earliest memory and the number of early memories, therefore, the finding need to be replicated and extended. To address this deficiency, we investigated childhood recollections in school children in Chinese cultural context. Based on the previous research (Liu & Cao,2014), the main purpose of the present study is to explore whether the age at earliest memory and other characteristics of earliest memory are associated with the number of early memories children can retrieve. Sixty Chinese only children (age 9 and age 13) completed a memory fluency task which examined the accessibility of early memories and elicited early memories. The detailed procedures of interview are as follows. 1) The instructions given to participants emphasized that the memories reported should be a specific memory and be able to be remembered. 2) Participants were given four minutes to recall as many memories as possible from their early years before they went to school. 3) Participants were requested to report their earliest memory after having three minutes of recollection. They were also requested to give a best estimate of their age of the earliest memory. 4) Free recall was followed by ed recall. Participants were asked (a) Who was present? (b) Who left the deepest impression in the earliest memory? (c) Please describe him/her in as much detail as possible in the earliest memory (ed recall). 5) The Adjective Check List was administered. This check list consists of the moral emotion words and the basic emotion words (Liu & Cao,2014). Participants choose the adjective words (e.g., happy, sad, guilty, envious) that they feel at the time of the event. Interviews were transcribed verbatim onto paper. Coding methods were mainly based on the previous study (Peterson, Wang, & Hou, 2009; Wang, 2004). Data were coded for inclusion of volume, autonomous orientation, and interaction scenario. It is worth mentioning that these variables were coded separately based on free recall and ed recall. In addition, the number of others and emotion terms were recorded. People who were present in the earliest memory were coded as mother, father, grandmother/grandfather, other relatives, peer, others and no others. The adjective words selected by the participants from the Adjective Check List were coded as moral or basic emotions. The research results are as follows: 1) Compared to previous researches on Western sample, the cultural characteristic of collectivism tended to be influential for Chinese children. Results showed that Chinese children are more likely to involve other people in their earliest memory, especially their parents. 2) Correlational and regression analyses showed that children’s age at earliest memory, memory volume (ed recall), interaction scenario (ed recall), and moral emotion are associated with the number of early memories. Specifically, memory volume (ed recall) was the best predictor of the number of early memories. The results are discussed in terms of sociocultural influences on memory. Asking participants to describe other people in as much detail as possible in the earliest memory (ed recall) is a more effective way of assessing Chinese children’ autobiographical memory characteristics, especially for those from a collectivistic cultural background. The relationships between the characteristics of earliest memory and the number of early memories suggest similar underlying processes at work when children retrieve childhood memories.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1377-1384 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 781KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1385
Parenting styles and adolescent Internet addiction: An examination of the mediating and moderating role of ego-resiliency**
A substantial body of research has demonstrated that adolescent Internet addiction (IA) brings a series of physical and psychological health issues. Among all factors influencing adolescent IA, parenting styles have been noted to be important predictors of adolescent IA. As such, authoritative parenting is negatively linked to adolescent IA, while authoritarian and permissive parenting are both positively associated with adolescent IA. Ego-resiliency, a personality characteristic reflecting the ability to adapt oneself to stress in a variety of contexts, has been linked with a wide range of factors including both parenting styles and adolescent IA. However, most research to date has only focused on the direct link between parenting styles and adolescent IA, little is known about the specific mechanisms underling parenting styles and IA. Does there exist a mediator or moderator in the relationship between parenting styles and adolescent IA? Determining the mediators and moderators would be important to provide guidelines to prevention and intervention of adolescent IA. Thus, the present study sought to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adolescent IA as well as the potential mediating and moderating roles of ego-resiliency in such a relationship. This study used a stratified cluster sampling to select 2,758 seventh to ninth graders (mean age = 13.35 years, SD = 1.06 ). We recruited participants from ten middle schools in four different cities of Guangdong province. Participants anonymously completed the modified Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire, Ego-Resiliency Scale, Adolescent Internet Addiction Scale and demographic information questionnaire. We used SPSS 22.0 software and Mplus 7.4 to conduct all statistical analyses. First, we obtained descriptive statistics for our variables of interest and covariates. Next bi-variate associations among all variables were calculated to examine the relationships among variables. Path analyses were then used to examine the mediating and moderating role of ego-resiliency. The major findings of the present study were: (1) Authoritative parenting was negatively associated with IA but positively associated with ego-resiliency, whereas authoritarian and permissive parenting were both positively associated with IA but negatively associated with ego-resiliency, ego-resiliency was negatively associated with IA. (2) Mediation analyses indicated that ego-resiliency mediated the relationships between authoritative/authoritarian parenting and IA. Interestingly, despite the fact that authoritarian parenting positively predicted IA, we also found that authoritarian parenting could positively predict ego-resiliency which in turn negatively predicted IA. (3) Moderation analyses showed that the relationship between authoritarian parenting and adolescent IA was moderated by ego-resiliency. Specifically, the adverse impact of authoritarian parenting was more potent for those who had higher rather than lower levels of ego-resiliency. Findings of the present study provide the first evidence of how and when parenting styles impact adolescent IA through ego-resiliency. Based on these findings, we proposed “the theory of dual effects of ego-resiliency” to explain the fact that ego-resiliency plays both the mediating and moderating roles in the association of parenting styles with IA. The theory posits that the dual nature of ego-resiliency is the reason for its double roles in the association of parenting styles with adolescent IA.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1385-1391 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 750KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1392
Influence of Parental Marital Conflict on Adolescent Aggressive Behavior via Deviant Peer Affiliation: A Moderated Mediation Model
It is valuable to realize that a family not only is the most basic and vital units of the society, but also has a far–reaching influence on development of the individual. Under the psychological field of vision, the parental marital conflict is a key point which has effect the stability of family systems. Moreover, many empirical studies indicate that marital conflict is associated with adolescent aggressive behavior . At the same time, the peer is also increasingly important in determining adolescents academic, physical, and socio–emotional well–being. Based on the family systems theory, the present study investigated the mediating effect of deviant peer affiliation on the relationship between parental marital conflict and adolescent aggressive behavior, and impulsivity ’s moderation of the effect of peer context. Children’s Perception of Inter–parental Conflict Scale(CPIC), the Negative Urgency– Premeditation–Perseverance–Sensation seeking–Positive Urgency (UPPS–P) Scale, aggressive behavior questionnaire and deviant peer affiliation questionnaire were administered to 1406 adolescents (Mean age =12.90, male =699)from junior middle school in Guangdong province in southern China. Chi–square test and t test showed that there were no differences between students who lost to attrition gender, age and other variables in this study. The assessment was conducted in class. All materials and procedures were approved by the Ethics in Human Research Committee of author’s university. The results presented mean, standard deviations, and the bivariate correlations between the variables involved in this study. Path analyses were tested to use the bootstrapping method in the structural equation modeling software Mplus 7.1, with the full–information maximum likelihood estimation. Congruent with our hypothesis, the mediation model seems to perfectly fit the data: x2/df= 2.012, CFI= .99, RMSEA= .027. The bias–corrected bootstrapping result indicated that the indirect effect of parental marital conflict on adolescent aggressive behaviors through deviant peer affiliation was significant (standardized indirect effect = .02; 95% CI [ .001, .02]). As shown in results, consistent with the hypothesized pathway, when controlling for gender, age and family income, parental marital conflict was positively associated with adolescents deviant peer affiliation which in turn was related to aggressive behaviors. In summary, the current study goes beyond previously applied designs by examining the mediating mechanism caused by deviant peer affiliation, and represents an important step in the investigation of how parental marital conflict relates to adolescent aggressive behaviors by moderation of impulsivity. The findings highlight the importance of marital conflict and deviant peer affiliation under the context of Chinese culture. It is so important to get the awareness which improve the family atmosphere and make the better peer affiliation would be more effective in reducing aggressive behaviors among adolescent with high impulsivity. These ?ndings demonstrate that intervention and prevention programs aimed at reducing adolescent aggressive behaviors must be all–sided and incorporate the impact of family, peer, and individual characteristics.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1392-1398 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 604KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1399
Feedback based Category learning: A new task of exploring children’s cognitive flexibility
Previous?researches investigated children’s?cognitive flexibility?of varying age groups by using different?paradigms. Wisconsin?Card?Sorting?Test (WCST) was one of the most widely used tests of executive function in clinical and research contexts. These researchers drew?different?or even?contrary?conclusions. Predecessors' researches?pay a lot of attention to cognitive flexibility which refers to a scene when previous rule is shown to be ineffective then flexibly switch to a new rule according to feedback. To explore a new?unified method in studying cognitive flexibility in rule acquisition for wider age range (5-11 years) children, in the present work,?a?novel test named Target Choose Task (TCT)was designed based on WCST. TCT concerns individual cognitive flexibility, which specifically refers to whether one could resist or switch initial hypotheses flexibly according to different feedback in rule acquisition. Another aim is to carry out a preliminary discussion of development and fast period of children’s cognitive flexibility. Additionally, to study the reliability, validity, difficulty and discrimination of TCT. TCT consisted of 63 three-dimensional stimuli boxes. Each of them comprised three perceptual dimensions, shape (square, trapezoid, triangle or circle), color (red, green, blue or yellow), and pattern (star, gridding, streak). TCT was composed of 9 trials, in each trial of which participants were provided with 1 target stimulus box and 6 reference stimuli boxes, and were asked to match one of the 6 reference stimuli boxes to the target stimulus box based on a classification rule. Participants received feedback after each match. The cognitive flexibility (set shifting) was investigated with TCT in 181 participants (from kindergarten to fifth grades; mean age 8.4 years ; age rage: 5-11 years old; 86 males) selected randomly from an ordinary kindergarten and an ordinary primary school. Twenty-four participants (grade: from second to third grade; mean age 8.9 years; age rage: 7-10 years; 10 males) also participated in the computer version of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The participants completed the test individually. The results were following, (1) All TCT scores show a positively skewed distribution; (2) There is a positive correlation between TCT accuracy and WCST accuracy; (3) The TCT score respectively has significant correlations with Categories Completed (CC) and Conceptual Level Responses(CLR)of WCST; (4) While, no statistically significant difference is found between “B type error” of TCT and Percent Perseverative Errors(PPE)of WCST; (5) The split-half reliability coefficient was calculated. One half text items significantly correlate with the other half; (6) High-scoring group have significantly higher level comparing to low-scoring group in TCT score; (7) TCT scores of all subjects rage from 0 to 8 (mean score ± SD: 3.78 ± 1.9). (8) The pass rate of each TCT test for all participants is from 0.32 to 0.66, implying that the difficulty index of TCT is moderate. In summary, psychometric properties analysis showed that TCT achieved to an excellent level of internal consistency, criterion-related validity, distinction index and moderate level of difficulty. It is a reasonable new method of exploring cognitive flexibility.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1399-1404 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 556KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1405
The Effect of the Congruence between Positive Followership Prototype and Positive Followership Traits on Abusive Supervision
Abstract Abusive supervision refers to a set of actions in which supervisors engage in the sustained display of hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors, excluding physical contact. Due to it’s destructive effect on organizations and their members,researchers’ attention has more recently turn to understanding the predictors of abusive supervision so that organizations can devise ways to prevent it. Despite a growing set of studies has enhanced our understanding of the antecedents to abusive supervision, there are very few studies that examine whether leaders’ cognition might evoke abusive supervision. In recent years, the implicit followership theories, which are cognitive categories that reflect the conceptions that leaders have about the traits and behaviors of followers, draws a new perspective to explore the antecedents of abusive supervision.The integral elements of the cognitive categories are prototypes, which are abstract mental representations for followership. According to the valence of a prototype, followership prototypes can be classified into two dimensions: the positive followership prototype (PFP) and the negative followership prototype. PFP is composed of the assumed traits characterizing effective or good followers, such as enthusiasm,industriousness, and good citizenship. To date, the majority of scholars concentrated on leaders’ PFP and found that leaders’ PFP were associated with followers’ performance, job attitude, and leader empowering behavior. In this paper, we also plan to focus on leaders’ PFP. According to the implicit followership theories,PFP can be activated unconsciously and compared with a follower' explicit followership traits(PFT) in the process of the leader and follower interaction. And then the leader use different ways to deal with the follower in accordance with the result of the comparison. Drawing on such arguments, what we pursue is to explore the effect of the congruence/fit between a leader’s PFP and follower’s PFT (PFP-PFT congruence) on abusive supervision. Based on a sample of 194 leader-follower dyads, and using polynomial regression with the response surface analysis, it showed that: (1) The more agreement (i.e., higher congruence) between a leader’s PFP and follower’s PFT, the lower the abusive supervision; (2) In the cases of congruence, abusive supervision was lower when leader PFP and follower PFT were both high instead of being both low; (3)in the cases of incongruence, lower abusive supervision was found when a leader’ s PFP was lower than follower’s as compared with when a leader’s PFP was higher. This study, like virtually all studies, is not without its limitations. First, we explain the impact of PFP-PFT congruence on abusive supervision in detail, however, using a correlational model constrains our findings about causality. Thus, future research should examine the causal impact, for example, studies could experimentally induce PFT and assess the effect of PFP-PFT congruence on abusive supervision. Second, Although PFP was composed of three dimensions, we only explore the overall effect of PFP-PFT congruence on abusive supervision. Whether each dimension has the same effects? Dimensional analyses may deepen our understanding on such question. Third, the study probes only into the direct effect of PFP-PFT congruence on abusive supervision, whereas the mechanism is not discussed. We suggest the mediating role of leader-member exchange can be examined in future studies.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1405-1411 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 845KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1412 Jun-Long ZHANG
The Impact of Power Sense and Group Identity on Cooperation—Base on the Mediation Role of Social Distance
Cooperation is a key issue in our human society. There are amounts of studies about influencing factors on cooperation , but rarely about exploring the impact of power directly on cooperation. Therefore, our study focuses on exploring the relationship between power sense and cooperation, and puts forward a regulated intermediary model, to examine the mediation role of social distance and the regulatory effect of group identity. We conduct three studies to test the hypotheses. In study 1, power sense is manipulated through recall task and measured cooperation degree with virtual public goods task to explore the relationship between power and cooperation directly. In study 2, we use role-play paradigm to control the power of participants, and record the cooperation indicator in single-round public goods dilemma, and adopt IOS scale to measure the social distance, examine the mediating role of social distance. In study 3, we manipulate power sense with the same way of study 2,investigate the cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma paradigm, and use minimal group paradigm to distinguish group identities, explore the regulatory effect of group identity in this experiment. This paper tells that: (1) the sense of power in the interactive context has negative prediction on the cooperative behavior,there is a significant difference in the cooperation between high and low power in the investment game tasks(t(101)=-2.89,p<0.05,d=0.58); (2) the social distance that individual perceive plays partly intermediary role between power and cooperation. The regression coefficient of power's impact on cooperation is -0.33 (p <0.05) and the regression coefficient of social distance on cooperation is -0.29 (p <0.05), which indicates that the mediating effect is significant .(3)The main effect of power sense on cooperation is significant (P = 1,78) = 14.82, p <0.001, η2 = 0.16, and the high-power(M = 0.39) is significantly lower than that of the low-power group (M = 0.55). The main effect of group identity is also significant, F (1,78) = 62.24, p <0.001, η2 = 0.45; the interaction between power and group identity is significant, F (1,78) = 5.29, p <0.05, η2 = 0.07. The group identity of the interactive object can adjust the relationship of power sense and cooperation . The results show that high-power experience will increase the individual's social distance perception and thus reduce co-operation in interpersonal interaction, group identity can alleviate the phenomenon. This study enriches the empirical research on the field of power behavior effect, explores the inherent mechanism of power influence cooperation, validates and expands the theory of social distance of power, lays the theoretical foundation for the follow-up study, and seeks the mitigation method for regulating this effect. In addition, it can help us to predict the behavioral tendencies of individuals in different situations accurately . Which is of great significance to reconcile the cooperative decision in reality.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1412-1420 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2096KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1421 Li-Rong LONG
An Empirical Study about intentions to initiate mentoring relationships: understanding the influences of personal characteristics
Abstract Though the antecedents and outcomes of mentoring relationship have been studied extensively, the initiation stage of mentorship is quite neglected and the empirical research is scarce. The mutual selection between protégés and mentors is an important issue in mentorship initiation studies. This paper devoted to examine the determinants of personal characteristics on potential protégé attraction and potential mentor attraction into a mentorship by three experiments. The first and second experiment examined the influences of mentor’s extraversion, achievement motivation, supervisor role and gender similarity on the protégé’s’ intention of initiation. 241 senior students assumed the role of protégés in a technical college participated in the first experiment in which mentor’s personal characteristics were designed with a mixed-design by 2 (male, female) × 2 (extravert, introvert) × 2 (high achievement motivation, low achievement motivation) × 2 (supervisor, none-supervisor), where the mentor’s supervisor role was a between-subject variable. The results of the first experiment indicated that the influences of mentor’s extraversion and achievement motivation were significant. The protégés had stronger intention to initiate a mentor relationship with those extravert, high achievement motivation mentors. The second experiment, in which 97 undergraduate seniors in a top university participated, had the similar design with the first experiment however the mentor’s supervisor role was treated as an in-subject variable. The outcomes of the second experiment showed that the extravert and supervisor mentor had stronger attraction to the potential protégés. The third experiment studied the protégé’s’ personal characteristics’ influence on mentor’s initiation intention. 262 juniors in a top university were assigned to assume mentor’s role to evaluate 8 profiles of potential protégés. The results indicated that protégé’s’ extraversion had s significant effect on mentor’s initiation intention and mentors prefer those extravert protégés. The main effect of the protégés’ achievement motivation is significant too, but it has interactions with the protégés’ gender and extraversion. The findings were interpreted in light of the strengths and weaknesses of these studies, and suggestions were made for future research focusing on the attraction stage of the mentoring relationship. This study contributes to the mentorship literature in several ways. First, this paper provided a good support of the application of social exchange theory in mentorship area. Second, this research used an experimental design to extend our understanding of the mentor-protégé dyads mutual selection process by controlling extraneous sources of variables and the findings generated in this experiments could be used to inspire more field studies. Third, this study goes further by encompasses both mentors’ and protégés’ perspectives in a same research. At last, while most samples of mentorship initiation are westerners, Chinese subjects in the mainland of this study in can enrich the culture context. Key words mentor-protégé selection, extraversion, achievement motivation, supervisor role, gender similarity
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1421-1427 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 500KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1428
Electrophysiological Correlates of Processing Female Facial Attractiveness and Its Influence on Male Honesty
Numerous studies have provided behavioral evidence to clarify the relationship between outward beauty and inner goodness. However, previous studies have primarily focused on the mutual relation between aesthetic processing and moral judgment that is “the judgment of same person’s outward appearance and inner morality”. Such research is meaningful, but it also deserves our attention to investigating whether individual facial attractive would influence other person’s moral behavior. Moreover, a series of event-related potential (ERP) studies have investigated the electrophysiological correlates of facial attractiveness processing in various task paradigms. It is still unclear whether facial attractiveness can be detected and processed automatically in social game contexts. This study firstly aims to investigate the influence of female physical attractiveness on male moral behavior as indicated by honesty. Secondly, this study examines the temporal features of brain activities involved in processing facial attractiveness in a social context by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) for attractive and unattractive recorder conditions while participants performed a modified coin-toss game with a reward. Thirty-six male college students (the average age = 22.04 years, SD = 2.08) were recruited and were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: attractive and unattractive female recorder conditions. In the task, participants were informed to gain money by accurately predicting the outcomes of computerized coin-flips. Participants were rewarded based on their self-reported accuracy and could earn a greater reward by lying about their prediction accuracy. A face image of a female recorder (attractive or unattractive) was presented to the participants during the task. We tested the influence of facial attractiveness on one’s honesty by comparing participants’ performance in the presence of different attractive female face. One who self-reported accuracy approximating the statistical probability of 0.5 was considered as more honest. Behavioral results showed that no significant difference between prediction accuracy in the attractive condition and random level (p > 0.05) was revealed, self-reported prediction accuracy in the unattractive condition was significantly higher than the random level(p < 0.01). Meanwhile, subjects self-reported prediction accuracy under the attractive recorder condition was significantly lower than that under the unattractive recorder condition (p < 0.01). ERP analysis revealed that a significantly larger central-parietal N200 amplitude was elicited in attractive condition reflecting the enhanced attention towards attractive face due to its emotional significant. This study demonstrated that facial attractiveness is rapidly detected in social game and facilitates human moral honesty; participants were more honest when presented with an attractive face than when presented with unattractive face. In addition, an early electrophysiological response to facial attractive was revealed, which fosters greater understanding of automatic facial processing in a social context.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1428-1434 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 960KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1435
The Impact of the Expectation Strength and the Expectation Confidence on the Unpleasant Perceptual Experience
Expectation is an individual’s belief of future outcomes of forthcoming events. The intensity of the belief is called expectation strength while to what extent one believes these outcomes will come true is called expectation confidence. Previous researches mainly focused on how expectation strength affects people’s sensation and perception. Nevertheless, previous researchers obtained different results in different fields. Our target is to explore the impact of expectation strength and confidence on immediate experience based upon sensory channels, thereby to answer the reason why expectation strength had different effects on outcomes in past researches. Ultimately, we give some useful advices about expectation to optimize their actual experiences when encountering some negative events. For this purpose, we conduct two experiments which start respectively from sense of touch and taste to find out whether the expectation strength and expectation confidence have influence on actual pain and subjective feeling when faced with unpleasant events in daily life. In Experiment 1, we conduct a new situation in which participants are asked to experience a hot product-shiatsu sheet which can generate pain feeling. We manipulate expectation strength with different text description about shiatsu sheet and activate expectation confidence through asking participants to illustrate three reasons about their expectations or describe 3 things they have done today. For the dependent variable, we measure participants’ pain perception and subjective feeling through self-evaluation scale under controlling self-confidence, emotion state and personality trait. The main results show that expectation strength and expectation confidence have interaction effect on practical experience, F(2,110)=10.06,p<0.001,η2=0.16. Participant with positive expectation have better feeling while they have strong expectation confidence, F(2,110)=16.78,p<0.001,η2=0.23. Meanwhile, expectation will not influence actual experience when participants do not have confidence, F(2,110)=0.15,p=0.858,η2=0.003. Interestingly, for the pain perception, expectation strength and expectation confidence have the same effect on actual experience, F(1,111)=13.53,p<0.001,η2=0.11, but for the subjective feelings, the two independent variables do not have significant influence, F(1,111)=1.83,p=0.179. In Experiment 2, we ask participants to taste some home-made drink and make evaluation. Participants experience their feelings more immediately since they are more familiar with this scene, so they can easily compare actual experience with expectation. The method of manipulating independent variables is the same with Experiment 1. For the dependent variables, we measure participant’s taste perception, subjective feeling and aversion under controlling emotion. The results of Experiment 2 are consistent with experimental hypothesis that expectation strength and expectation confidence have interaction effect on practical experience, F(3,94)=4.62,p=0.005,η2=0.13. Participant with positive expectation have better feeling when they have strong expectation confidence, F(3,94)=3.83,p=0.012,η2=0.11. In the contrary, participant with negative expectation have better feeling when they have weaker expectation confidence, F(3,94)=2.87,p=0.069,η2=0.08. For the dependent variables, the findings are the same with experimental 1, expectation strength and expectation confidence only influence taste perception without any effect on subjective feelings. In conclusion, results suggest the expectation strength can impact individuals’ immediate experience in which expectation confidence plays a moderating role. When people have strong expectation confidence, their actual experience is consistent with outcomes of expectation, that is, people with positive expectations can experience better and vice versa; On the contrary, when expectation confidence is lacked, individuals’ actual experience is different from the expectation, in other words, those who have negative expectation can experience better instead. These findings depict how expectation influences perception and sensory. In terms of theoretical significance, the research not only reveals the mechanism that expectation strength and confidence influence individuals’ immediate experience, but also provides theoretical and practical implications for understanding the nature of body-mind relationship. expectation strength, expectation confidence, sensory channel, sensory experience;
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1435-1441 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 607KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1442 Xiao-Ming FANG
Entrepreneurial Environment on College Students' Entrepreneurial Intention: Moderated Mediating Effect
In recent years, employment problem of college students is becoming ever more serious. In order to alleviate college students’ employment pressure, the government encourages college students to start a business. College students’ entrepreneurial behavior is fundamentally affected by entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneurial intention is the first step in the process of starting a business. Therefore, more attention should be paid to college students’ entrepreneurial intention. Few studies have examined the mediating processes between entrepreneurial environment and college students’ entrepreneurial intention. Mediational analyses attempt to identify the intermediary process that leads from the independent variable (e. g., entrepreneurial environment) to a dependent variable ( e. g., college students’ entrepreneurial intention). And there is few research, if any, examining whether the mediating effect depends on other factors. It is very necessary to study the potential mechanisms of college students’ entrepreneurial intention so as to design improvement programs. The present study aimed to explore the moderated mediation among entrepreneurial environment, entrepreneurial motivation, gender and entrepreneurial intention. The study not only examined indirect relations between entrepreneurial environment and college students’ entrepreneurial intention via entrepreneurial motivation, - 11 - but also examined the extent to which gender moderated the indirect relations between entrepreneurial environment and college students’ entrepreneurial intention. 647 college students from four schools (301 boys and 346girls, M age=20.67±1.78) were recruited in the study to complete self-report questionnaires. The self-report questionnaires used in this study included entrepreneurial environment scale, entrepreneurial motivation scale and entrepreneurial intention scale. The results indicated that: (1) Entrepreneurial motivation played a partial mediating role between entrepreneurial environment and college students’ entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneurial environment could directly influence college students’ entrepreneurial intention, as well as through influenced entrepreneurial motivation, ultimately influenced college students’ entrepreneurial intention; (2) Gender moderated this mediation effect of entrepreneurial motivation. For male college students, with the increase of entrepreneurial environment, their entrepreneurial motivation had an obviously ascending trend (γ = .60, t = 13.21, p<.001). For female college students, with the increase of entrepreneurial environment, their entrepreneurial motivation had ascending trend (γ= .50, t = 8.11, p<.001). In other words, improving the entrepreneurial environment of college students enhanced entrepreneurial motivation of male college students more than females. Therefore, the effect of entrepreneurial environment on college students’ entrepreneurial intention was moderated mediating effect. The moderated mediating model significantly revealed the effect mechanism of entrepreneurial environment on college students’ entrepreneurial intention. These findings supported our model that the link between entrepreneurial environment and college students’ entrepreneurial intention was complex and dependent on other factors. The conclusion of the study had important reference value for improvement of college students’ entrepreneurial intention.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1442-1448 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 535KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1449 Yijun Luo
The Relationship between College Students’ Psychological Needs and Internet Interaction: The Role of Cognitive Assessment and Self-Regulation
Social media refers to highly interactive platforms where people employ mobile and web-based technologies to share, co-create, discuss, and modify user-generated content (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy, & Silvestre, 2011). With the development of the Internet, more and more people choose to use the Internet to interact with their offline friends as well as strangers they met online. Therefore, Internet interaction has been popular all over the world and has brought great convenience to people’s studies, work, entertainment and so on. Among all the users, the proportion of college students that constantly engaged in Internet interaction is quite high in China (China Internet Network Information Center, 2017). Researchers have revealed that Internet interaction has both positive and negative effects on college students’ physical and mental health development. However, the specific outcome might depend on whether and how Internet interaction meet users’ needs (Suler, 1999). The extant researches indicated that people prefer to use Internet interaction in order to satisfy their psychological needs that real life interaction could not achieve (Cai, Cui, & Li, 2007; Wan, Liu, & Fang, 2012). Hence, psychological needs have quite important influence on college students’ Internet interaction. Yet little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. This study aimed at filling this gap. The mediation mechanism can tell us how the independent variable (psychological needs) has effect on the dependent variable (Internet interaction), and the moderation mechanism can inform us how the relationship between the independent variable (psychological needs) and the dependent variable (Internet interaction) is influenced by the moderator (self-regulation). This study proposed a moderated mediation model to examine whether the relationship between psychological needs and Internet interaction was mediated by the cognitive assessment and was moderated by the self-regulation. Psychological Needs Scale for College Students, Internet Decisional Balance Questionnaire, Self-Regulation Scale and Internet Interaction Questionnaire for University Students were administrated to 503 college students (M = 21.66 years, SD = 1.67). Data were collected and analyzed with SPSS 20.0, and the bias-corrected percentile Bootstrap method was used to analyze the mediating role of cognitive assessment and the moderating role of self-regulation. The results indicated that: (1) The relationships between each path of psychological needs, the pros of Internet, the cons of Internet, self-regulation and Internet interaction, were significantly positively related. (2) College students’ psychological needs positively predicted their Internet interaction, and this relationship was partly mediated by the pros of Internet and the cons of Internet. (3) The relationship between psychological needs and Internet interaction was moderated by the self-regulation. For college students with high self-regulation, psychological needs positively predicted their Internet interaction. However, for college students with low self-regulation, psychological needs could not predict Internet interaction. These findings highlighted the complex nature of association between college students’ psychological needs and their Internet interaction, providing constructive advises for college students to develop a healthy habit of Internet interaction.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1449-1455 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 636KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1456
Prediction of Self-Esteem by Agency: Intrapersonal Perspective vs. Interpersonal Perspective
Both agency and communion were described as the basic form of human existence. Previous studies have explored that self-assessed agency is a stronger predictor of self-esteem than self-assessed communion. Nevertheless, the existing studies mainly focused on the intrapersonal perspective, while the relationship between agency and self-esteem from the interpersonal perspective was still unknown. It has long been suggested that self-esteem reflects the need for both self-respect and respect from others. Based on previous literature, this experiment investigated the relationship between the fundamental dimensions of social cognition and self-esteem under the different evaluative perspectives. we conducted two studies and all of the participants were measured by Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. A total of 160 trait adjectives were selected from established Chinese Adjective Words System for Fundamental Dimensions of Social Cognition, including 40 positive agentic words (e.g., intelligent, competent), 40 negative agentic words (e.g., foolish, clumsy), 40 positive communal words (e.g., warm, friendly) and 40 negative communal words (e.g., cold-blooded, solitary). Upon arrival, participants completed Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. They then completed the main tasks conducted on the desk-top computer running by the E-Prime software (2.0). The intrapersonal perspective task asked participants to assess “Does the adjective describe yourself?” by pressing on the button. The interpersonal perspective task asked participants to evaluate “Do you agree the evaluation about you from your classmates?”. In study 1, we adopted a within-subjects design to confirm the relationship between the fundamental dimensions of social cognition and self-esteem both from the two perspectives. 36 students were required to complete the task of the evaluation about agency and communion both from intrapersonal perspective and interpersonal perspective. In study 2, we also conducted experiment to confirm the relationship between the fundamental dimensions and self-esteem both from the two perspectives, but the experiment was adopted a mixed design. We recruited 240 students in all. Half of the participants were required to complete the evaluation about agency and communion from the intrapersonal perspective, while the other half completed the task from the interpersonal perspective. Results showed that: (1) Analysis of variance of repeated measures indicated that ratings of communion were higher than ratings of agency both from intrapersonal perspective and interpersonal perspective[F(1,35)=61.63, p<.001, ηp2=.64], and results found a significant interaction between perspectives and dimension[F(1,35)=10.04, p<.01, ηp2=.22]. (2) But multiple hierarchical regression analysis showed that self-esteem was dominated by agency only from the intrapersonal perspective. Further, we found that the rating of agency from the intrapersonal perspective was a significant full intermediate variable between the rating of agency from the interpersonal perspective and the self-esteem scores. (3) Specifically, when we adopted a mixed design to rule out the disadvantage of within-subjects design, results proved that ratings of communion were higher than ratings of agency[F(1,238)=175.97, p<.001, ηp2=.43], and self-esteem was dominated by agency both from the two perspectives. Although we did not find ratings of communion were higher than ratings of agency, results proved that self-esteem was also dominated by agency. In sum, it proved that the primacy of communion is over agency and self-esteem is dominated by agency both from intrapersonal perspective and from interpersonal perspective. The present findings were consistent with the previous research and also suggested that the dominance of agency on self-esteem stably existed regardless of perspectives.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1456-1463 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 753KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1464
The Tripartite Model of Self-construal theory indicated that self contains three aspects: individual self, relational self, and collective self. The individual self is a representation of self as a unique and independent social agent. It reflects cognitions that are related to traits, characteristics, experiences, interests, and goals that promote a sense of distinctiveness and individuality. The relational self reflects cognitions that are related to one’s relationships. It consists of traits, characteristics, experiences, interests and goals shared with intimate others that promote a sense of connection and closeness. The collective self is a representation of self as an undifferentiated and interchangeable group member (e.g., as when fans paint themselves in their team colors). It consists of traits, characteristics, experiences, interest, and goals derived from shared group memberships that promote a sense of assimilation and belongingness. These three aspects coexist in one’s self, but situational factors will affect which kind of self-construal would be activated and become the primary of that current situation. Reviewing the differences in the neural mechanisms of the Tripartite Model of Self-construal, we found that comparing with other information, self-related information(including individual self, relational self and collective self) all induced stronger N2 (familiarity index) and P300 (advanced cognitive processing index) components. A larger N2 amplitudes may indicate that personally familiar information elicit stronger responses than other information. And P3 component was associated with the controlled processing phenomena triggered by previous automatic processes; its generation has been shown to require top-down attention mechanisms initiated by frontal lobe functions. This result indicating that self has a stronger biological importance and psychological prominence, easier to be identified and keep attention. FMRI results showed that processing the information of individual self, relational self and collective self also activated more medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), which is the important region to characterize the self. However, the individual self uniquely induced stronger P2 components than relational self and collective self. P2 activity may reflect the detection of typical stimulus features, and recruitment of attention resources. This result indicated the individual self-information elicited early attention and was rapidly differentiated from other self-information in the brain in the absence of top-bottom cognitive and controlled resources. Furthermore, the individual self activated more right-brain region, however relational and collective self activated more left-brain region. The results of the comparison between the three kinds of self under Chinese cultural background showed that which self is primary one depended on the stage of processing. Specifically, at the early stage of processing, collective self was the primary one and at the late stage of processing, individual self became the primary one. As to the activated region, the three components neither were almost the same and nor differed at the degree of activation. However, some problems still remain unsolved. Future research should emphasize on the specific brain areas representing these three kinds of selves as well as their functions.It should also aim to find if the tripartite model of self-construal has its unique characteristics in Chinese cultural context. In the end it is still under discussion whether relational self and collective self can be further subdivided by relationship types and in different groups.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1464-1470 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 366KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1471
Sunk Cost Effect: Underlying Mechanisms and Influencing Factors
The sunk cost effect is a irrational phenomena that occurs when the current decision-making is made based on sunk cost. In this paper, we reviewed scientific literature on the sunk cost effect. According to traditional economic theory, a rational decision-maker is expected to not let sunk cost, which incurred in the past and cannot be changed now and in the future, influence his or her current decision-making. However, collective evidence indicated that decision-makers are particularly vulnerable to sunk costs, thus demonstrating the sunk cost effect. Since first confirmed empirically by Arkes and Blumer in 1985, the sunk cost effect has been documented in various domains, including consumer behavior, progress management, clinical treatment, personal relationship and even war policy. Thus a better understanding of the sunk cost effect, especially its underlying mechanisms and influencing factors, is crucial to avoid this ubiquitous decision-making bias. Generally, existing literature has examined the sun cost effect in two types of decision task, utilization decisions and progress decisions, which even could be distinguished as two research paradigms. Underlying mechanisms of the sun cost effect were summarized as following: (1) cognitive frameworks including prospect theory, mental accounting and query theory; (2) motivative frameworks, such as self-justification and waste-avoidance; (3) neural mechanisms. In addition, factors that may moderate the sunk cost effect include (1) characteristics of sunk cost, e. g., the magnitudes of sunk cost and the type of sunk cost; (2) contexts of sunk cost decision, which refers to time delay between sunk cost and current decision, and how the information of sunk cost is framed; (3) individual characteristics, e. g., age, domain-specific expertise and personality; (4) cultural difference distinguishing individualism vs. collectivism. On the basis of the review of existing researches, four future directions for this line of research were also discussed. First, since sunk costs in existing researches are usually presented and manipulated under hypothetical scenarios which may limit its ecological validity, future researches therefore are expected to be conducted with real sunk cost. In addition, distinguishing two types of decision task empirically is also suggested. Second, the sunk cost effect has been repeatedly established in nonhuman animals, so it is an interesting question as to what do these findings mean for humans’ sunk cost effect. Besides, rational reasons behind the sunk cost effect may suggest future researchers to figure out to what extent decision-makers are relatively rational. Third, the sunk cost effect has been exclusively documented from monetary cost, whether and how behavioral sunk cost effect occurs deserve more attention. Fourth, although the sunk cost effect researches are numerous, few have involved coping strategies. Therefore, how to avoid the sunk cost effect for decision makers facing with various sunk cost ought to be explored. In addition to adverse effects, the sunk cost effect may be used positively, e.g., enhance consumer loyalty as switching barrier or promote target action serving as commitment device. Future researches hence need to define the pros and cons of the sunk cost effect, and when and how it could play a positive role.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1471-1476 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 325KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1477
Bayesian inference should be introduced to the psychological research: its necessity, ideas and field
From perspectives of scientific paradigm progress and characteristic of statistic inference, this paper focus on why, how and what kinds of field Bayes statics inference should be applied in psychology. Firstly, because frequency probability inference can’t satisfy the need of testing the reliability of theory while scientific paradigm is progressing in the crisis stage and revolution, so some kind of statistics inference which can test the reliability of theory should be introduced. Secondly, because of the meaning of Bayes principle and the characteristic of Bayes statics inference, the Bayes statics inference should be applied when one more reliable theory should be selected from theories. At last, the Bayes statics inference should be applied in the theoretic construct and theoretic discussion, and be used in the development and assessment of mental technical products.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1477-1482 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 634KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1483
Formulating and applying grade response multilevel facets model in scoring open-ended item
Open-ended items played an important role in evaluating students’ skills, such as analysis, synthesis, and problem solving skills. During scoring open-ended items, rater effects would be occurred due to lack of standard answers, also lack of consistent cognition for the rating rules between different raters. As a consequence, the scoring results would be affected by rater effects. How to estimate person, item and rater parameters precisely is an important issue. Some researchers formulated the GRM-based multilevel facets model, which called grade response multilevel facets model (GR-MLFM), to estimate person ability and handle rater effect when the tasks are successively processing. They used two simulation studies to examine parameter recovery for the unconditional model (none predictors were added into the model) of GR-MLFM. Results show that the model can recovery all the parameters very well, GR-MLFM is useful and reasonable; also results show that the random effect model are more suitable than the fixed model. The purpose of current study was to examine the reasonable of GR-MLFM when both person and rater predictors were added into the model, which called full model of GR-MLFM. One simulation studies and an empirical study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of GR-MLFM. For the simulation study, 2 levels were formulated, level 1 was an IRT model, and in level 2, the gender of student and 4 predictors of raters were considered. R software was applied to generate person response matrix, after that, OpenBUGS software, which based on MCMC algorithm, was used to estimate the parameters of model. Bias, root mean square error (RMSE), and percentage bias (PB) were used to evaluate the recovery. The results indicated that all of the estimates of parameters were closed to the true values, the absolute differences between the estimates and true values were less than .05 across all the parameters. Meanwhile, the RMSEs of these estimates were small enough, the values ranged from .04 to 0.132. Furthermore, although 7 PB values were larger than 5, most of they can be attributed to smaller denominators, which means almost of these parameters show an acceptable results. Based upon these results, it can be seem that the model can fitted the data precisely and stably, and was promising to apply the model to detect rater effect. For the empirical study, 4 open-ended items were used to detect students’ problem solving skills of mathematic, then 20 raters were recruited to rate the responses of 80 person who answered these items. Also, the gender of student and 4 predictors of raters, responsibility and stability of emotion and confidence and rating experience, were added into the level 2 model to investigate the rater effects. Results show that among these 20 raters, almost raters show non substantial rater effects (severity / leniency), only rater 9 displayed significant severity. Furthermore, 2 predictors of raters had significant effects on rater effects, among these, responsibility had positive effect on severity, and confidence had positive effect on leniency; while the rating experience and stability of emotion of raters produce non-significant effects on rating results.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1483-1490 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 918KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1491
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1491-1497 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 915KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1498 Hui-Ying LIU wan wang
Effects of Rumination, Experiential Avoidance, Self-esteem and Depression on the Arising of Suicide Idea: A Moderated Mediation Model
As a major public health hazard, suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Suicide idea, appearing before suicide, is the most fatal prospective indicator of committed suicide. Therefore, more and more researchers are interested in exploring the influence factors of suicide idea and how and when they have impact on it. According to the model of risk buffer, Self-esteem is an important protective factor of negative emotion and can weaken people’s suicide idea, rumination and experience avoidance are risk factor that can strengthen people’s suicide idea. Rumination is a kind of response style that people repetitively and passively focus their attention on depressive symptoms and the implications and consequences of this symptoms. Previous studies have demonstrated that rumination was a risk factor of mental health which could aggravate depression and lead to suicide idea. Different from rumination, experiential avoidance is a kind of unhealthy response process which involves excessive negative evaluations of unwanted private thoughts and sensations, an unwillingness to experience these private events, and deliberate efforts to control or escape from them. Previous studies found it was related to depression. In this study, we aimed at exploring the effects of self-esteem, experiential avoidance and depression on the arising of suicide idea. A total of 778 undergraduates and postgraduates were recruited randomly for this study. Acceptance and Action Questionnaire was used to measure experiential avoidance. Self-esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem. Depression was measured by the depression subscale extracted from the Self-reporting Inventory. Suicide idea was assessed by the ninth item from Beck Self-rating Depression Scale. All the measures were self-reported and attained good reliability and validity. SPSS21.0 and Mplus were applied to analysis the survey data. The results indicated that: (1)The self-esteem can negatively predict suicide idea(β= -0.110,p <0.001). The higher the self-esteem, the weaker the suicide idea.(2)The depression moderate the relationship between experience avoidance and suicide idea. The experience avoidance can positively predict the depression(β= 0.372,p <0.001), the higher the experience avoidance, the higher the depression. The depression can positively predict the suicide idea(β= 0.415,p <0.001).The higher the depression, the higher the suicide idea.(3)The self-esteem can buffer the effect of experience avoidance on suicide idea by negatively predict the experience avoidance(β= -0.330,p <0.001)and the depression(β= -0.428,p <0.001). The higher the self-esteem, the weaker the experience avoidance and the depression. In summary, the effect of self-esteem, experiential avoidance and depression on the arising of suicide idea was a complicated moderated mediation model. This model provided a systematically and profoundly interpretation about how and when self-esteem, experiential avoidance and depression impact suicide idea. On one hand, the protective factor self-esteem can negatively predict suicide idea, while the risk factor experience avoidance can affect the suicide idea through the depression. On the other hand, Self-esteem could weaken the positive effect of experience avoidance on suicide idea. This study also provided a practical implication that rational coping style and proper self-esteem were very important factors to prevent negative emotion, as well as suicide idea.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1498-1503 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 487KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1504
The application of virtual reality exposure therapy in treating social anxiety: efficacy, mechanism and expectation
Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is the transform of in vivo exposure therapy by using virtual reality during the treatment. In recent years, VRET has become an attention-grabbing alternative to the traditional treatments of social anxiety. This systematic review gives an overview of the trials regarding the efficacy of VRET in patients with social anxiety. Furthermore, researches on the mechanism during the exposure process are discussed. The application of VRET was divided into three stages. Pilot studies was used to show that VR might be a useful tool for exposure therapy in the treatment of social anxiety. However, these studies are vulnerable to the threats to internal validity such as historical effects and maturational effects for not using controlled group or assigning participants randomly. Several controlled trials was used in the second and generated greater confidence. Although intervention groups received significant improvement compared with the wait-list, all these studies investigated VRET in combination with CBT, therefore the efficacy of VRET as stand-alone treatment is still unknown because the possibility cannot be ruled out that the effects found were caused by CBT rather than VRET. So in the third stage, two studies began to make an effort to single out the effects of pure VRET with exposure components alone. The results indicated that VRET as a stand-alone treatment is valid and can successfully be applied for treatment purpose. Furthermore,the study to evaluate the sustainability of treatment gains also emerge,which enhance the conclusion of the efficacy of VRET. The efficacy of these studies could be explained by the relationship between the authenticity of virtual reality, emotions felt by the users immersed in the virtual environment and the sense of presence. The concept of presence has been identified as the machanism by which virtual reality exposure therapy can treat social anxiety successfully. Different componets of presence was linked to peak fear and the response.There is a positive association between peak fear and realness subscale, while the response during VRE is predicted by involvement subscale. Future research in social anxiety should not only focus on attentional deployment to verbal cues, but also to nonverbal cues such as facial expressions. Moreover,the application of VR is still in its infancy, most social situations targeted public speaking-related anxiety and included only limited verbal interaction (i.e., answering questions). However, the majority of individuals with social anxiety reported more than one fear, emphasizing the need for research on VRET targeting heterogeneous social fears and design more sceneries. Last but not least, we suggest future researches to measure the third perspective of VRET. The application of avatar can affect people`s attitudes, cues and emotions in the social interaction.So researchers could use avatar to explore the factors that might cure people with social anxiety.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1504-1510 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 871KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1511
Effects of Non-invasive Neurostimulation of Prefrontal Cortex on Eating Control: A Systematic Review Based on rTMS and tDCS
Unhealthy eating habits can lead to overweight, obesity and eating disorder. A study has shown that obesity and disordered eating is a formidable global medical challenge, especially in China. The number of people who are worldwide overweight or obese has augmented dramatically over the past decades. The hedonic-inhibitory model of feeding posits that overconsumption of palatable food results from the disrupted balance between appetitive motivation mediated by the mesolimbic reward system and active inhibitory control mediated by the prefrontal areas, whereby appetitive motivation may override inhibitory control. Recently, data from obesity neuroimaging studies shows that imbalance in the prefrontal and limbic brain circuits that support cognition and reward-related aspects of eating behavior. Indeed, obesity and eating disorder often display abnormal neural activity in the prefrontal control circuitry, a key area for the eating control and processing of food motivation and satiety signaling. In this context, there is a pressing need for novel approach to prevention and treatment of obesity and eating disorder. Non-invasive neuromodulation techniques allow the external manipulation of the human brain in a safe manner, without the requirement of a neurosurgical procedure. Over the past decades there has been rising interest in the use of non-invasive neuromodulation in neurology and psychiatry motivated by the shortage of existing treatments. The most commonly used non-invasive neuromodulation techniques are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current simulation (tDCS). The purpose of this work is to conduct a systematic review of rTMS and tDCS efficacy on improving the eating control among the healthy participants and eating disorder as well as methodological considerations and its potential mechanism. Eating control is a new application for the non-invasive neuromodulation, with the earliest study dating back to 2004. To date, seeing that the vital role of the prefrontal regions on the inhibit the hedonic eating, the most studies published to this day pay attention to the prefrontal cortex, especially in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In the healthy participants, most studies have found that the subjective food craving was reduced and the food-related cognitive function was enhanced after one session stimulation. In the eating disorders, improvement in clinical symptoms and alteration of the neurobiological basis were shown after one or more sessions. Nonetheless, it is necessary to note that a small number of studies did not achieve the desirable intervention effect. Non-invasive neuromodulation stimulating the prefrontal cortex would bring a series of neural physiological and biochemical changes, which boosts the capacity to control the hedonic eating and inhibits the appetitive motivation. This will heighten the strength of the top-down executive function and suppress the bottom-up reward impulsivity, thereby facilitating the eating control among the obesity and eating disorder. To sum, non-invasive neurostimulation technology might effectively enhance the ability to control appetite, which ultimately improves the symptoms of disordered eating by altering the neuropsychological mechanism of the prefrontal cortex to adjust its excitability. Future research should further take the effect of different stimulation parameters and other target sites into account, consider the individual differences and explore the underlying neuralmechanism by integrating with other neurophysiological techniques and combining with the objective behavioral paradigms.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1511-1517 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 301KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1518
Thinking on Chinanization of Personality Research
The Chinanization of personality research refers to the study of the personality of Chinese persons considering the current reality of China. The concept strives to create a Chinanized form of personality psychology with Chinese characteristics to better serve China’s nurturing of talent and social development. This shift is essential since personality is the way of being a person. Person is not a pure concept of natural category, but is bounded by social culture and history. Contemporary Western personality psychology cannot be universally and homogeneously acknowledged. Although theories differ with a variety of definitions, at their core, they emphasize the uniqueness of the individual; however, in Chinese culture, individuals are evaluated from a perspective of commitment to social obligations, historical responsibilities, and moral values. Traditional Chinese culture emphasizes the “Oneness of man and nature” and that the individual should appropriately handle his or her responsibilities towards other people, social groups, society, and nature rather than individual uniqueness. Researches have shown that Chinese individuals are different from individuals in Western countries in terms of their fundamental personality structure, personality dynamics, and self-structure. To develop the field of personality psychology with Chinese characteristics, it is not appropriate to merely translate and simulate current theories. Instead, throughout the education process, we should guide students to explore approaches towards the Chinanization of personality research to achieve research findings that are distinct and specific to China. To that end, the following approaches are suggested: 1. Clarify concepts, and carefully retest personality research conducted overseas. Concepts represent the abstract elements of various phenomena in a particular field of research. The concepts that psychologists study may present different implications; even if the concept implies the same meaning, the behavior of people under different social cultures may also vary. For these reasons, we should not simply imitate personality researches conducted by Western psychologists but retest them and accept appropriate aspects to develop personality psychology theories, concepts, and tools suitable for Chinese. During the education process, we should encourage and support students to think independently and conduct research in a creative manner. 2. Immerse oneself into the reality of China, and strive to conduct personality research geared towards Chinese individuals. To study the personality and behavior of Chinese, it is necessary to immerse oneself into their everyday lives. We should proactively guide students to observe people’s daily lives and events to extract concepts related to personality psychology. Students should also be guided to focus on traditional Chinese culture and fine personality traits advocated in contemporary society. Students should treat such matters as research topics, paying close attention to the everyday lives of people, and conduct personality research specifically designed for Chinese individuals. 3. Combine qualitative and quantitative research approach to study Chinese personality. The basic procedure is suggested as follows: a) find examples of certain concepts (e.g., self-independence, self-confidence, self-reliance, courage, frugality) from a real-life context or Chinese ancient literature, and explore its fundamental connotations; b) conduct in-depth interviews and content analysis, then cross-reference such data with the dimensions found in literature analysis to identify the indicators that represent a certain personality concept; c) prepare a preliminary questionnaire; d) conduct a large-scaled test, perform exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to develop a questionnaire with fine reliability and validity; e) conduct follow-up experiments or surveys; and f) suggest recommendations for application. 4. Try to construct a “perfect personality model”. Perfect personality refers to the constant enrichment of oneself and exploring one’s potential according to one’s own set of life goals as well as maintaining happiness and developing one’s chosen life path. The perfect personality model is also known as the “Happy Pursuing Model.” Individuals with perfect personality must possess the right values and a proactive view of one’s self (including self-love, self-independence, self-confidence, self-reflection, and self-improvement) and must pursue ideals
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1518-1523 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 328KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
1524 WANG Lijun
Empirical Phenomenological Psychology: Inheritance and Development of Giorgi to Husserlian Phenomenology
Abstract Amedeo Giorgi,an American phenomenological psychologist,inherited and modified Husserlian Phenomenology from scientific and psychological perspective, which is mainly shown in the following three aspects: First, on the subject of criticism, Giorgi takes in Husserlian phenomenology in terms of naturalism and spiritualism, which holds that they can’t bring people any truth owing to their own shortcomings, and they even prevent people from accessing to the truth. Basing on this, Giorgi further points out that natural science psychology has a long history and has been dominating this field for over one hundred years,but it is obvious that natural science orientation is unsuited to psychology due to the totally different nature between object and human. In addition, he urges that phenomenological principles are valued and considered as an important approach in psychology to investigating the full range of behavior and experience of human as a person, which is also scientific. Second, on the starting point and basic principles, Giorgi takes it seriously the concepts of Husserlian phenomenology such as the lifeworld, intentionality, reduction and important others, and he accepts that consciousness was intentional, which means that an act of consciousness always directs towards an object. In this way, researchers can get essence of experience rooted in lifeworld by reduction and description. For psychological and scientific purposes, Giorgi transformed them from transcendent level to experience level. For example, he adopted concepts of usual lifeworld, bracketing and eidetic reduction rather than transcendental lifeworld and reduction. Third, on the research methods, Giorgi partially agrees with Husserl’s theory that researchers can get the essence by methods of reduction and description. Nevertheless, considering that psychology is different from philosophy, basing on former studies, Giorgi built up a specific and operational descriptive phenomenological psychology method, which contains four stages: reading for overall meaning, identifying meaning-units, assessing the psychological significance of meaning-units, and getting the general structure of the experience. As a result, a large number of specific studies are born to follow him. Empirical phenomenological psychology can be traced to Husserlian Phenomenology in essence, and considered as the most perfect exhibition of the theory. What’s more, it enriches and goes beyond the latter in specific concepts and applications. Besides, it develops a rigorous and scientific phenomenological psychology approach. The emergence of empirical phenomenological psychology means that American phenomenological psychology has already completed its propaedeutic phase and turned into the phases of concrete action. It is the first phenomenological psychology method in American and the most mature method of phenomenological psychology nowadays. We should fully recognize empirical phenomenological psychology. On the one hand, it possesses many advantages: It adds a completely new method to psychology and achieves a thorough breakthrough in methodology, and raises a series of thinking on the basic theory of psychology, as well as realizes the combination and mutual promotion of psychology and philosophy; on the other hand, difficulties also exist. For example, the research depends too much on the researcher’s individual ability, findings are not always adopted properly in practice, researchers can’t use it correctly due to the lack of phenomenological knowledge, internal views vary and mainstream psychology brings much stress to it. In a word, the development of empirical phenomenological psychology is fraught with difficulties, but we should still believe that it and psychology of the humanities will continue to advance in future.
2017 Vol. 40 (6): 1524-1530 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 336KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
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