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psychological science  
 
 
2018, Vol. Num.3
Online: 2018-05-20


 
514
Difference of Emotional Information Acquisition between Neutral Concrete and Abstract Words
The interactions between emotion and language has become a hot topic in psychological fields, emotional background plays an important role in word processing. External emotion clues including individuals’ emotional state, emotional tone/context, and affective picture and so on will have an influence on word processing. However, there is little study investigating the mechanism of the acquisition of words’ emotional information up to now. The present study aimed to explore whether neutral words in different emotional backgrounds can be given a certain kind of emotional meaning, such as become a negative word in negative emotional background, which in turn impact word processing, we also focus on whether there are difference between neutral concrete words and neutral abstract words on the process of emotion acquisition. We used lexical force-choice paradigm to investigate the mechanism of the effect of emotional meaning on neutral word and the modulation effect of concreteness. 36 college students participated in this study and their average age is 20.35 ± 1.56. Experimental materials were neutral concrete words, neutral abstract words and different types of affective pictures, including positive and negative pictures (selected from International Affective Picture System). Firstly, we choose 10 participants who did not engage in the final experiment to evaluate 400 words from The modern Chinese vocabulary dictionary based on their concreteness and emotionality, according to their assessment, we choose 100 neutral concrete words and 100 neutral abstract words as the experimental materials. The final experiment was divided into two stages: emotion learning stage and word preference rating stage. In the emotion learning stage, subjects were asked to choose one word to match with the picture’s emotion meaning from the two, which were displayed under an emotional picture. Subsequently, a 2 minutes distraction task was implemented to prevent memory effect. In the word preference rating stage, participants needed to evaluate the preference on a Likert 9-point scale (1 meant extremely not liking and 9 meant extremely liking) to the words that had displayed in previous stage. We conducted a 2 (words: neutral concrete words, neutral abstract words) × 2 (emotion: positive, negative) × 2 (category of choices: selected, non-selected) experimental design, the dependent variable is the scores of word’s degree of liking. The results showed that (1) the scores of the degree of liking were significantly different between selected words and non-selected words. For neutral concrete words, the words were chosen under positive pictures were rated higher in the scores of the degree of liking than those were selected under negative pictures. For neutral abstract words, however, there was no such effect. (2) the selected words were rated higher in the scores of the degree of liking than which were not selected when paired with positive pictures, there is no difference when paired with negative pictures. The results suggest that concrete words are more easily to obtain corresponding emotional meaning compare to abstract words, and positive emotion is more easily to be learned versus negative emotion. Taken together, neutral words obtained corresponding emotion in different emotion backgrounds when they were selected in the force-choice task, the establishment of words and emotion backgrounds’ arbitrary connection is the mechanism of emotional information acquisition. Concreteness modulates the acquisition and processing of words’ emotional information.
2018 Vol.  (3): 514-519 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 386KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
520
The Relationships between Mental Imagery, Perception and Memory from the Perspectives of Representation and Cognitive Process
Mental imagery refers to a perception-like representation that formed in the brain when things are not in sight. Currently, a part of studies which investigate the relationship between mental imagery, perception and memory have indicated that mental imagery, perception and memory can activate a strikingly overlapping brain regions, which shows that they may share the similar representation. But others have discovered that there are certain differences between them, especially in the cognitive process. To provide valuable suggestions for further research, this review discusses the relationship among mental imagery, perception and memory from the perspectives of representation and cognitive process. Firstly, mental imagery, perception and memory share similar representation. On the one hand, information acquires from perception contributes to form the mental imagery. On the other hand, prior experience retrieved from long-term memory is a source of mental imagery. Perception processes external information as a form of representation, and information retrieved from long-term memory is temporarily stored in the working memory as a form of representation. Therefore, the generation of mental imagery relies on processing of representation. This viewpoint has supported by some behavioral experiments. For example, participants scanned the appointed targets at the same rate in both mental imagery task and perceptual task, the eye movement patterns of the fixation had no significant difference between these tasks; mental imagery task and working memory task could be disturbed by the same type of interference, such as structured dynamic visual noise or background luminance variation. Evidences from cognitive neurosciences also have revealed that mental imagery, perception and memory tasks from the same sensory modality can activate a wide range of same brain regions. For instance, visual mental imagery, visual perception and visual memory can activate some regions of the primary sensory cortex, parietal lobe, occipital and frontal cortex. These results confirm that they share similar representation. Secondly, there are still some differences between mental imagery, perception and memory from the perspective of cognitive process. Mental imagery encodes information in a more abstract way, relies more on the prior experience and has weaker ability to deal with the details than perception. While compared with short-term memory, mental imagery is more susceptible to the single-pulse TMS in the early stage of formation. In addition, it relies less on the hippocampus than long-term memory. In summary, mental imagery, perception and memory can be regarded as an integrated, interrelated and interactional cognitive system. The information obtained from perception and memory can affect the generation of mental imagery. Besides, after it is formed, mental imagery can serve not only as a priming cue to guide attention toward the represented object and to promote the perception of that object, but also as a memory cue to help people recall imagery-related information, or to interfere with the memory retrieval phase, which results in false memory or distortion of traumatic events. Further studies should pay more attention to the relationship between mental imagery and the top-down processing of perception. Simultaneously, to solve the inconsistent results of the relationship between mental imagery and working memory, different types (e.g., objective, spatial, or verbal) and different sources (perception or memory) of mental imagery and working memory tasks should be well-designed. Besides, how large is the capacity of mental imagery? And how perception and memory affect the mental imagery capacity? What’s the mechanism of the interconnection between mental imagery, perception and memory? Does working memory play a mediating role in this interrelation? Explorations on these questions will clarify the relationship among mental imagery, perception, and memory.
2018 Vol.  (3): 520-525 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 480KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
526
The terms high and low are spatial terms that are commonly used for categorizing space. Interestingly, when describing sounds we also often use the terms high and low. Referring to pitch in purely spatial terms therefore suggests a non-literal interpretation of the words high and low, as musical pitch in principle does not imply as partial location. It reflects a cognitive mapping of two different domains (space and pitch height),a state of affairs that is often referred to as a conceptual metaphor. There are two main forms of sound: the physical sound and the conceptual sound. At present, the research about the physical sound shows that sound has a metaphorical representation. Does the conceptual sound has the metaphorical representation, as the physical sound? Thus, language describing auditory events provides an ideal opportunity to investigate spatial simulation effects in situations where the word is used in a non-literal context. Some researches about the text or sentences describing sounds and the spatial space have been found. However, there are some extra components in texts and sentences which may disturb the consistence effect between sound concepts and the spatial space. Words are different from texts and the sentences, with less images or other influential components. To know if the consistence effect between concepts and spatial space exactly exist, it is necessary to use the sound words as the experiment materials. Two experiments were used to investigate the existence of the sound words’ vertical spatial metaphor. We use the priming paradigm with horizontal keyboard. In the experiments, we first present the sound words, then present a square or a circle on the 25% or the 75% of the screen. In experiment 1, the sound words are passively observed, participants were only asked to judge whether the shape present is square or circle. In experiment 2, participants will judge the pitch of the sound words first, then judge the shape. The experiment 1 found that the sound words firstly present didn’t promote the judgment of the shape in different vertical space. The experiment 2 found that the sound words with high pitch promoted the judgment of the top shape, the sound words with low pitch promoted the judgment of the bottom shape. Metaphorical consistency effects only observed in the experiment 2 which the semantic of the words were deeply processed. That means the metaphor of the sound words is weak or unstable. The degree of imagery and the semantic access of the sound words may explain. Afterword questionnaire brought out that the sound words commonly consist a variety of imagery, but usually sound doesn’t occur first. It means that the activation of the vertical spatial metaphoric of sound words needs more explicit semantics in the sound dimension, that is, the sound words’ vertical metaphoric can only occur in the case of deep-level semantic processing.
2018 Vol.  (3): 526-532 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 606KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
533 Chengzhi FENG
Feedback type and time in motor skill acquisition
Effective feedback plays an important role in motor learning. At the same time, the feedback itself includes many levels of character. The purpose of this study was to investigate what kinds of time and type in feedback do facilitate motor skill acquiring. It was worth mentioning that, the study focused on motor skill acquisition, not on the skill retention. Easy and hard motor tasks were used. In the easy part, the participants had to control the ball’s stop point through the key response of “ctrl+↑” or “ctrl+↓”. The actual path was blocked by the board, and the smaller the distance between target and actual point, the better of the performance. In the hard task, the participants had to track the ball’s moving path as accurate as possible. People completed the task by controlling the mouse. Also, the actual moving path was not shown. In both experiments, we defined the feedback time as immediateness and 4s delay. Besides, the feedback type was another variable. The ball moved straightly in the easy task. After its stop, the feedback was given. A word or a picture was shown in different groups. The word was “near” or “far”, and the picture showed two points at the same time, one was the target point, and the other was the ball’s actual stop point. At the same time, a number or a picture was given separately in the hard task. The number told the participants how far was the actual track away from the target, and the picture showed the tracking path directly. In both tasks, people learned from the feedback, and tried to do better in the next trial. The difference between the target value and the actual value was recorded and analyzed. ANOVAs revealed that feedback time and type influenced motor skill acquisition differently in two tasks. In the hard one, there was no difference in two level of feedback time. Participants’ tracking skill improved significantly after the real trajectory was shown to them. However, in the simple task, people learned not only from words’ but also from pictures’ information. Note that, participants’ skill had greater improvement in the graphic feedback condition. Also, in the easy task, giving feedback immediately was better for motor skill acquiring during the early stage of the learning. In addition, the graphic feedback had similar effect both in the immediate and delay feedback, and giving text feedback immediately in the easy task was better. In summary, the study aimed to explore effective feedback features in the context of easy and hard motor learning task. We found that providing detailed and specific feedback information was beneficial to the acquisition of motor skills, and the effect of feedback time on motor skill was different from task difficulty. We explained the results under the framework of cognitive load theory.
2018 Vol.  (3): 533-539 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 475KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
540
The Influence of Negative Emotional Intensity on Dual-processing Recognition Retrieval
Dual-processing theory assumes that recognition memory involves two distinct memory processes, familiarity and recollection. Familiarity refers to a fast-acting retrieval process without the retrieval of any contextual details of the past event, whereas recollection involves the conscious retrieval of specific temporal and spatial information of past experiences. Emotional stimuli differ not only in respect to the valence polarity, but also in respect to emotional intensity. Although the effects of different negative emotional intensity on recognition memory have been investigated, it is unknown how different levels of negative emotional intensity influence familiarity and recollection. In the present study, we used modified “remember/know” paradigm to investigate how negative emotional intensity influences familiarity and recollection. In the study phase, subjects were instructed to learn the pictures of different levels of emotional intensity including neutral, highly negative (HN), moderate negative (MN), and low negative (LN). In the test phase, they made “remember/know/guess/new” recognition judgments towards stimuli intermixed with learnt and new pictures. According to attention narrowing hypothesis, negative valence leads individuals to focus attention on local details. We hypothesized that the negative item will engage more detail processing with the increase in the negative emotional intensity during encoding. In retrieval phase, individual memory more depends on recollection with the increase in the negative emotional intensity during encoding. The discrimination Pr was measured as the hit rate of old picture minus new picture. A repeated measures ANOVAs were performed with emotional intensity (LN, MN, HN and Neutral ) and item type (remember, know, guess) as factors. The results showed there was a significant difference among emotional intensity in the “remember” judgments, presenting the following pattern: HN > MN > LN > Neutral. As for the “remember” judgments, there was a significant difference among emotional intensity,presenting the following pattern: HN < MN < LN < Neutral. A repeated measures ANOVA on RT were performed with emotional intensity (LN, MN, HN and Neutral ) and item type (remember, know, guess, new) as factors. The results showed that the "remember" judgments were significantly faster than the "know" judgments. Moreover, there was a significant interaction effect between emotional intensity and item type. There was a significant difference among emotional intensity in the “remember” judgments, presenting the following pattern: HN < MN < Neutral and no significant difference between MN sand LN. There was a significant difference among emotional intensity in the “know” judgments, presenting the following pattern: HN < MN < LN < Neutral. These findings have further supported and developed attention narrowing hypothesis and suggests that negative emotional intensity influences recognition memory in two ways. One is that recollection-based retrieval increases with an increase in the magnitude of negative emotional value. The other is familiarity-based retrieval decreases with an increase in the magnitude of negative emotional value.
2018 Vol.  (3): 540-545 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 501KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
546
Temperament Effortful Control and the Neuroanatomical Basis of It
Effectively controlling the thoughts and behaviors is crucial for one’s study and work. This capacity can be evaluated using temperament effortful control (EC). EC is defined as “the efficiency of executive attention, including the ability to inhibit a dominant response and/or to activate a subdominant response, to plan, and to detect errors”. EC includes the abilities to voluntarily manage attention and to inhibit or activate behaviors as needed to adapt, especially when people does not want to do so. It is well established that EC includes three sub-dimensions, i.e., inhibitory control, activation control and attention control. Inhibitory control is the capacity to inhibit inappropriate behaviors. Activation control is the capacity to perform an action when there is a strong tendency to avoid it. Attention control is the capacity to focus attention as well as to shift attention when desired. EC reflects the ability to regulate behaviors in accordance with surroundings. Behavioral studies have linked effortful control to children's?academic achievement, interpersonal relationship and aggressive behaviors. EC develops rapidly during the infant and preschool years. Functional neuroimaging studies have discovered that EC is associated with the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortical (PFC) during performing cognitive tasks. Structural imaging studies have revealed a relationship between EC and the PFC maturation during adolescence, and found that EC is positively related to the dorsal ACC volume. However, previous findings on the neural bases of EC are inconsistent and few studies have been conducted to review EC and its neural basis. This?study reviewed?former?research?about EC,including the concepts and development of EC, as well as its neuroanatomical basis. In addition, we discussed the relationship between EC and executive function. The results?have showed?that EC?and?executive function?are?both?related?to?individual?performance?on?executive?control?tasks,?such?as Stroop?task,?working?memory?task?and?spatial? conflict?task.? Besides,?brain?areas?related?to?EC?are?primarily located? in?salience ?network? and?fronto-parietal?network, including the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parietal lobe and supplemental motor area. It is well known that these areas mediate? the?neural bases?of?executive? function, suggesting that EC and executive function might share common neuroanatomical bases, and salience?network?and?frontal ?parietal ?network are the neuroanatomical basis of EC. Given that little is known about the neural basis of EC, this study has provided a detailed and in-depth review on EC, which helps us create a specific and systematic understanding of EC.
2018 Vol.  (3): 546-552 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 464KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
553 Tao Suo
The influence of emotion on delayed discounting: status Quo, mechanism and prospect
Early researches on decision making didn’t give any room to emotions. Later, Herbert Simon launched a revolution in decision theory when he introduced bounded rationality. Simon knew that his theory would be incomplete until the role of emotion was specified, thus presaging the crucial role contemporary science has begun to give emotion in decision research. Delayed discounting means that, compared with current or recent benefits (or losses), people tend to give future benefits (or losses) less weight and choose current or recent benefits (or losses). Delayed discounting is an important research direction in the field of decision-making. Researchers have explored the relationship between emotion and delayed discounting in a number of areas (e.g., investment, economic policy, health). In the present article, we reviewed the related researches on emotion and delayed discounting. First, we summarized the researches on relations of emotion and delayed discounting, which were divided into three aspects: influence of emotional valence on delayed discounting, influence of emotional arousal on delayed discounting and influence of specific emotion on delayed discounting. Then, we reviewed the theoretical explanations of the effect of emotion on delayed discounting. Finally, the future research directions were prospected. The research status of relation emotion with delayed discounting. Based on the emotional valence perspective, some studies have showed that positive emotions reduced the discounting rate on long-term values, and negative emotions increased the discounting rate for long-term values in delayed discounting tasks. However, the other studies showed that positive emotions increased the discounting rate of the delayed value, and negative emotions reduced the discounting rate of the delayed value. Based on the emotional arousal perspective, the studies showed that different degrees of arousal had different effects on delayed discounting. Emotion is a separable whole of a variety of ingredients, and thus emotions can be further divided into positive emotions such as pleasure, surprise, and negative emotions such as anger, sadness, disgust and fear. Different types of emotions may have different effects on delayed discounting. Some researchers were concerned about the impact of specific emotions on delayed discounting. Based on the specific emotion perspective, there were differences among the effects of different specific emotions on delayed discounting. The theoretical explanations of the effect of emotion on delayed discounting. Affect-as-information theory (AIT) assumed that there were different emotional information for different valence emotions, which affected the individual information processing strategy. In the positive emotional state, the individuals used a top-down processing strategy. In a negative emotional state, individuals tended to adopt a bottom-up processing strategy. Motivational dimensional model of affect (MDMA) argued that the emotional motivation dimension rather than the emotional valence dimension could better predict individual behavior. The direction of emotional motivation affected the direction of the individual's behavior, and its intensity affected the individual's cognitive approach. Appraisal-tendency framework (ATF) argued that different forms of emotions had different effects on human behavior. The theory assumed that emotions were arisen from cognitive evaluation, and to promote the individual evaluating tendency to decision-making task, then to influence individual decision-making through the information processing content and depth. The future research direction. Firstly, future research should emphasize the interaction between different factors, such as different specific emotions and individual factors, decision-making scenarios and the emotional attributes of decision-making objects, and then examine the internal mechanisms behind these interactions. Secondly, future studies should examine the neural mechanisms of the effects of specific emotions on delayed discounting. Thirdly, future studies should investigate the intervention effect for the negative impact of specific emotions on delayed discounting.
2018 Vol.  (3): 553-558 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 286KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
559 Wei WEI
Predicting Reading Comprehension from the Initial Status and Growth Rate of Word Reading among Chinese Students at Lower Grades
Reading comprehension is the ultimate aim of learning to read, and it depends primarily on word reading during early school years. On the basis of the moderate or strong correlation between word reading and reading comprehension, more and more recent studies argued that the growth rate of word reading also contributes to reading comprehension, and it was confirmed by some studies on reading acquisition in alphabetic languages. However, there are few studies examining the contribution of the growth rate of word reading to reading comprehension in Chinese acquisition. Moreover, few studies compared the relative contribution of two word reading skills, i.e., word decoding and reading fluency, to reading comprehension. Therefore, the aim of this study was twofold. The first was to examine whether the initial status and growth rate of Chinese word reading (word decoding and reading fluency) during Grade 1 uniquely contributed to reading comprehension at the end of Grades 1 and 2, and the second was to compare the relative contributions of word decoding and reading fluency to reading comprehension. One hundred and eighty-three Grade 1 students (101 boys and 82 girls) participated in this study, and they were assessed at the November, February, and May during Grade 1 (T1, T2, and T3), and at the May of Grade 2 (T4). They were assessed on nonverbal IQ (T1, Nonverbal Matric), word decoding (T1-T3, Character Recognition), reading fluency (T1-T3, One-Minute Reading), and reading comprehension (T3-T4, Passage Comprehension). Hierarchical linear modelling was used to estimate the intercepts and slopes of word decoding and reading fluency based on the data at three time points (T1-T3). Results showed that the intercept correlated with the slope for both word decoding (r = -.65) and reading fluency (r =-.52). Results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that the slope of word decoding uniquely predicted reading comprehension at T3 and T4, after nonverbal IQ and the intercepts of word decoding and reading fluency were statistically controlled. Moreover, the slope of reading fluency uniquely predicted only reading comprehension at T4, but it made unique contribution to the growth of reading comprehension from T3 to T4 (by controlling the autoregressive effect). The contribution of word decoding (the intercept and slope) to reading comprehension at T3 was higher than that of reading fluency (the intercept and slope), while their contribution to reading comprehension at T4 was approximately equivalent. The results indicated that the growth rate of word reading is important for the development of reading comprehension in Chinese acquisition, and the policy makers and reading educators should take the growth rate of Chinese word reading into consideration when using word reading to predict later reading achievement. The increasing contribution of reading fluency to reading comprehension also confirmed the theory of automatic information processing in reading, which argued that the automaticity of word decoding reallocated the attention resource from basic word recognition to higher-order comprehension processes.
2018 Vol.  (3): 559-564 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 314KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
565
Preoccupied/unresolved Attachment Representations and Control Behaviors among Mothers of Toddlers: Moderating Effects of Marital Quality and Child Gender
Maternal control behaviors during toddlerhood exert long-term impacts on children’s cognitive and social-emotional development. Maternal preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations have been found to be associated with negative control. However, the associations between maternal preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations and control behaviors have not yet been explored systematically and the potential moderating mechanisms by which these effects occur remain to be examined. What’s more, most of the studies are cross-sectional. The present study investigated the longitudinal associations between maternal preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations and control behaviors, and focused principally on the moderating roles of marital quality and child gender. Participants included 94 mothers and their toddlers (41 boys, 53 girls; Mage = 1.17 years, SD = 0.07 at T1; Mage = 2.07 years, SD = 0.09 at T2; Mage = 3.15 years, SD = 0.09 at T3) in urban areas of Beijing, China. Both maternal preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations and marital quality were assessed by mother report using Adult-to-parental Attachment Experience Survey (AAES) and Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test at 1 year of child age (T1). Maternal control behaviors which included gentle control, command control and forceful control were coded through 10-minite videotapes of mother-child interactions at T1, T2, and T3. The percentages of missing data for all study variables were between 13.33% and 22.22%. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the moderating effects of marital quality and child gender after imputing missing values using expectation maximization (EM). Both maternal preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations and marital quality were mean centered prior to analysis. The results showed that: (1) The preoccupied/unresolved dimension of the AAES was not significantly related to marital quality and control behaviors at T1 and T2, whereas preoccupied/unresolved dimension was significantly?associated?with forceful control at T3, controlling for forceful control at T1. (2) Marital quality moderated the associations between preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations, and gentle control and command control at T3. Specifically, preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations were related to subsequent low levels of gentle control and high levels of command control at T3 among mothers with low levels of marital quality, whereas preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations were not related to either gentle control or command control among mothers with high levels of marital quality. (3) Marital quality moderated the associations between preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations and forceful control at T3 in conjunction with child gender, such that marital quality moderated the links between preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations and forceful control among mothers of boys. The present study enriched attachment theory by showing that maternal preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations exert longitudinal impacts on maternal forceful control during toddlerhood, and marital quality modifies the longitudinal links between maternal preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations and control behaviors. Marital quality emerges as a protective factor that buffers against the detrimental effects of preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations on gentle control and direct command control for all mothers, whereas marital quality mitigates the negative impacts of preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations on forceful control only for mothers of boys. The moderating effects of marital quality and child gender in the relationships between preoccupied/unresolved attachment representations and control behaviors detected in the current study have important implications in early prevention and intervention efforts.
2018 Vol.  (3): 565-571 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 598KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
572
Morpho-semantic processing during word recognition among Third and Fifth Grade Chinese children
Priming studies with adult readers have provided evidence for the activation of morpho-semantics during the processing of words with the appearance of morphological complexity. The present studies investigated whether evidence for the effects of morpho-semantics can be obtained with developing readers. Chinese third, fifth graders and adults (the latter as a control group) performed lexical decision tasks in which opaque and transparent words were primes and targets to each other. There are still the other two control conditions, in which both opaque and transparent targets were preceded by the form and morphological unrelated control words. Results showed that across all groups, when primes and targets share the same morphemes, the correct rate of the transparent words was significant higher than that of the opaque words; but when primes and targets had no such relationship, participants responded more quickly and accurately to the opaque words. This pattern of results indicates that morpho-semantics could play an important role even in developing readers.
2018 Vol.  (3): 572-578 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 592KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
579
Relationship between Peer Rejection, Peer Victimization and Depression in Early Adolescence: A Cross-lagged Analysis
Depression is a commonly mental illness characterized by persistent sad feelings, and is one of the key indicators of internalizing behavior. Most depressive symptoms have their onset in early adolescence, increase and peak in adolescence, and persist to adulthood, which increase the risk of major depressive disorder in adulthood. According to interpersonal risk model, poor peer relationship, including peer rejection and victimization, may contribute to problematic outcomes, such as depressive symptoms. Previous studies revealed that peer rejection had positive associations with depression and related problem behavior, such as loneliness, anxiety, social withdraw, low self-concept, low self-esteem, and so forth. Victimization also had long-term or short-term effect to adolescents’ depression. However, some resent studies failed to support the links between poor peer relations and later depression. Another theory—symptoms-driven model argued that depressive symptoms antecede the development of poor peer relations. The symptoms-driven model was also supported by several recent longitudinal studies. However, most study in this area focus on the detrimental effect of peer relationship to depression, less is known about the effect of depression to peer relationship. Peer rejection and victimization is two co-occurring but different forms of negative peer experience, and highly correlated to each other. Besides, peer victimization can be physical or relational in nature. Precious studies have identified the differential nature of relational versus physical victimization. Relational victimization is more strongly related to depression and internalizing problems than physical victimization. Therefore, it is important to include these three subtypes of negative peer relationship in the statistical models simultaneously to estimate their unique effect, when investigating associations between peer relationship and adolescents’ depression. In summary, the present study was to test the reciprocal associations between three aspects of negative peer relationship (peer rejection, physical and relational victimization) and development of depression. Our model was tested in a large sample of adolescents at 2 waves over the course of 1 year. 1068 adolescents (568 males, mean age 13.22±0.36 years old at wave 1) from 5 middle schools, were investigated. Peer rejection was obtained through peer nomination procedure. Physical and relational victimization were assessed through physical and relational subscales in Multidimensional Peer Victimization scale. The Children’s Depression Inventory-Short Version was administrated to measure depression. All of the measures showed good reliability. The cross-lagged model revealed that (1) significant correlations existed between adolescents’ depression, peer rejection, physical and relational victimization at each waves; (2) adolescents’ depression at time1 predicted later physical and relational victimization, but not peer rejection, and both peer rejection and victimization at wave 1 failed to predict later depression; (3) and there was no gender differences in associations between three types of peer relationship and depression. The results in current study supported symptoms-driven model. That is there was unidirectional association between victimization and depression in early adolescence, and adolescents’ depression led later peer victimization. The results deepen our understanding of peer relationship and depression. The moderating factor in relation between peer relationship and subsequent depression and the mechanism through which depression leads to subsequent peer relationship in adolescence is an important direction for future research. Key Words: early adolescence, peer victimization, peer rejection, depression, cross-lagged analysis
2018 Vol.  (3): 579-585 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 647KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
586
Effects of Target Salience and Task Importance on Prospective Memory and its Prospective Interference in Low and High Achieving pupils in math
Some studies have shown that low achieving pupils, especially low achievers in math report more prospective memory (PM) problems than high achievers. To explore how to improve their PM performance, and how target salience and task importance of PM affect PM performance in low achievers in math, the effects of target salience and task importance on PM and prospective memory were compared between low and high achieving pupils in math in the present study. Target salience (PM tasks with salient target vs. PM tasks with non-salient target) was manipulated as a within subject factor, and task importance of PM (importance emphasized vs. no importance emphasized) and achieving group (low vs. high achieving pupils in math) as between subject factors. Furthermore, to examine prospective interference to the ongoing task, every participants completed a set of baseline tasks without PM. The results suggest that high achieving pupils outperformed low achieving pupils in PM tasks. Salient targets improved PM performance. But emphasizing PM importance improved PM accuracy only in non-salient PM condition. According to the results, it is important to help low achievers to establish a salient target for their PM tasks. If the target can’t be salient, then emphasizing the importance of the PM tasks.
2018 Vol.  (3): 586-593 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 826KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
594
The Impact of Regulatory Focus on Resilience of Adolescents: The Chain Mediating Effect of Meta-mood and Coping Style
As an important ability allowing individuals recover quickly after a traumatic experience or adapt adversity well, resilience is defined to be correlated with life satisfaction, mental health and happiness. Previous studies showed that individuals’ self-regulatory abilities could influence the development of resilience, especially among the adolescents. Beyond the hedonic principle, in the field of self-regulatory research, Higgins’s regulatory focus theory (RFT) further listed two different regulatory inclinations, the promotion regulatory focus which is related with development and improvement and the prevention regulatory focus which is related with protection and security. And it is also presents the true nature motivation of people approach and avoid pain (Higgins, 1998). Some studies found that the kind of approach strategy is helpful for the resilience enhancing (Villasana, Alonso-Tapia, & Ruiz, 2016; Thompson, Mcbride, Hosford, & Halaas, 2016), but the avoidant strategy can also improve the psychological adaptation of people, such as avoiding or depressing emotion (Coifman, Bonanno, Ray, & Gross, 2007). The strategy that individuals adopt when people faced with the stress will reflects the desired end-state that individuals pursue. No matter whether the desired end-state is striving for accomplishment and aspiration or safety and responsibilities, the strategy that people adopted would influence the result of circumstance adaptation and the training of coping capacity. Considering the other two protective factors of meta-mood and coping style, the purpose of this research is to explore the relationship between regulatory focus and the resilience of adolescents as well as the chain mediation mechanism of meta-emotion and coping style. A total number of 899 volunteers (411 males and 488 females; mean age =15.11 years, SD=1.36) in four different middle schools of Anhui Province were recruited for this research. They were asked to complete the questionnaires of Regulatory Focus Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS) and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, respectively. The correlation analysis among the variables was processed by SPSS?18.0 software, following which a mediation analysis, based on bias-corrected bootstrap method by structural equation modeling (SEM) using Mplus? 7.0, was operated. The research indicates that (1) Adolescents in this study score higher than average in regardless of promotion focus, prevention focus, meta-mood, positive reaction or resilience. Meta-mood values of adolescents vary prominently among different genders. And males achieve higher scores in Meta-mood values than females do. Also, for middle and high school students, research reveal significant differences in meta-mood and resilience levels of them. High school students achieve superior evaluation than those from middle schools. (2) Adolescents’ regulatory focus, meta-mood and coping style are significantly and positively associated with their resilience. The meta-mood of adolescents has a significantly positive correlation with their coping style and resilience. And the correlation between promotion focus and negative coping style is not significant in this study. (3) The promotion regulatory focus of adolescents has a notably positive impact on resilience directly and also a positive impact through meta-mood and positive coping style indirectly, whereas a negative impact on resilience through meta-mood and negative coping style. (4) The prevention regulatory focus of adolescents has a positive impact on adolescents’ resilience indirectly through meta-mood and positive coping style, whereas a negative impact on resilience through meta-mood and negative coping style indirectly. The study drew the following main conclusion that meta-mood and coping style have a chain mediating effect between regulatory focus and resilience of adolescents.
2018 Vol.  (3): 594-600 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 434KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
601
The development of pupil’s visual search in traffic situation
Visual search is an important component of pedestrians’ interaction with traffic situation, which allowing them to successfully identify external cues that impact their decision-making. Previous research has identified that children under the age of 14 are particularly vulnerable to road accidents as pedestrians, and a number of motivational and cognitive skill factors which may play a part in it. Studies have shown that children with low visual search are more likely to take risks when crossing the road. However,in the traffic situation, whether children's level of visual search, and searching strategy is the same with that of the adults, it is less mentioned in previous studies. We aimed to explore the development of pupils’ visual search as pedestrians. The sample consisted of 160 Chinese pupils from a common primary urban school, including 42 in Grade 1, 43 in Grade 2, 41 in Grade 4 and 34 in Grade 6. In addition, 41adults volunteers aged between 18 and 27 years were recruited from a university in Nantong city. All subjects completed two experiments: ‘spot the difference’ was used to assess subject’s visual search ability, while visual search strategies were studied by analyzing the eye movements of the children and the adults while they were carrying out the video task. In experiment 1, there were 34 pairs of pictures were chosen as stimulus materials, including 30 pairs for experiment and 4 pairs for practice. The subjects were asked to spot all the differences on each of the picture pairs as quickly as possible, but they were not told how many differences in each pair. In experiment 2, a simulated road environment of moving traffic was designed by video designers. The subjects’ eye-movements were recorded by Smart Eye 3D Eye Tracking System. Participants were instructed to observe the traffic video, and had a response when they thought it was safe to cross. The results showed that as pupils growing, their efficiency in “spot the differences” task improved continually. However, pupils in grade 1 and 2 still didn’t perform as well as the adults, (p﹤.01). The performance in “spot the difference” had no significant differences between boys and girls (p﹥.05). Compared with adults, the pupils behaved much more missing crossing and less safety crossing (p﹤.05). Specially, among the pupils, the pupil in grade 4 had the least times of adventure crossing, while missed the most times to cross the road (p﹤.05). The girl’s missing crossing was much more than the boys (p﹤.01). Pupils’ eye gaze in the region of interest were different from the adults’, that the adults’ fixation duration was much longer than the pupils (p﹤.001), and the fixation counts were much more than the pupils (p﹤.05), except on the curve. However, pupils’ saccade amplitude and saccade velocity in the whole traffic video are not different from the adults’ (p﹥.05). Results demonstrate that pupils' traffic visual searching ability goes up as they grow, and visual searching strategies become more reasonable and useful. However, they are still on a low level compared with adults. Visual search for grade four pupils (9-10 years of age) has developed significantly. Visual search doesn’t vary with gender on the whole.
2018 Vol.  (3): 601-607 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 455KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
608
A Study on the Intergenerational Transmission of Parenting from the Perspective of Life History Theory
Quite a lot of research has been done on the topic of parenting’ s intergenerational transmission. Until now most of the literature explained the transmission with the mediating role of attachment. Though many ideas of evolution were included during the forming the attachment theory few studies has explored the intergerational transmission of parenting from an evolutionary perspective. Based on the existing literature this research explored the role of life history strategy on the intergenerational transmission of maternal parenting. With questionnaires collected from 252 mothers (Mean age =41, SD=4.39) in Central China, all of them has at least one child who was in the secondary school, this research explored how the maternal parenting style in the original family influenced the adult daughter’s co-parenting behaviors in their own family. We hypothesized that in addition to attachment style, the adult daughter’s life history strategy played an important role in the process of transmission. Two questions were mainly discussed. The first one focused on how the adult daughter’s life history strategy developed in their original family. The second question focused on the relationship between mother’s life history strategy and their co-parenting behaviors in their own family. Individual’s life history strategy, parenting style, attachment style and co-parenting were measured with Mini-K scale (Figueredo et al, 2006), PSDQ (Parenting Style and Dimensions Questionnaire, Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen & Hart, 1995), ECR (Experiences in Close Relationships Inventory, Brennan, Clark, Shaver, 1998) and Co-parenting scale (McHale, 1997) respectively. Harshness (Griskevicius & Tybur, 2013) and unpredictability (Belsky, Schlomer & Ellis, 2012) were measure with the items developed from the literature. The correlational analysis indicated the environmental harshness and unpredictability during the childhood could not predict one’s life history strategy as an adult. With the analysis of Sequential Linear Model the result showed Mother’s authoritarian parenting style in the original family could predict the adult daughter’s slow life history strategy through the mediating role of anxious attachment behaviors. Mother’s authoritative parenting style could predict daughter’s slow life history strategy directly. The fit indices were: χ2=179.60, df=79, RMSEA=0.07, IFI=0.92, CFI=0.91。 The second research result with the Sequential Linear Model indicated through the complete mediating role of the adult daughter’s slow life history strategy the maternal authoritative parenting style in childhood could predict the adult daughter’s collaborative co-parenting behaviors in her own home. The fit indices were: χ2=184.43, df=96, RMSEA=0.06, IFI=0.94, CFI=0.94. In order to eliminate the possible influence the mother’s age was set as a control variable in two of the SEM models above. In conclusion, this research supported that mother’s parenting style in the original family could predict their adult daughter’s future co-parenting behaviors. Parenting behaviors could be transmitted intergenerationally between mothers and daughters through the role of daughter’s attachment style and life history strategy. Most importantly this research pointed out that the adult daughter’s life history strategy played a key role during the process of parenting’s intergenerational transmission.
2018 Vol.  (3): 608-614 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 333KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
615
The Methods, Effects and Mechanism of Priming Attachment Security towards Social Behaviors
Attachment refers to an individual's tendency to seek closeness and protection from the significant people (such as parents, friends, companions etc.) with born. The interaction between individual and their attachment object will gradually internalize and produce the stable attachment style. Although the attachment style is stable, but individual's behavior and emotional tendencies are not always expressed as a certain style, but will respond to the specific circumstances. Researchers found that supraliminal and subliminal priming attachment security lead people feel temporary security, and had significant effects on individual's social behavior. These effects are mainly manifested in the performance of more pro-social behaviors and disclosing, less deception, discrimination and moral disengagement behaviors. Baldwin and his colleagues (1996) explained the psychological mechanism of priming attachment security on social behaviors from the perspective of social cognition. They believed that the temporary sense of security suppressed the cognitive processing for negative social information, thus increased the positively behavioral response to situation. However, this statements ignored the effects form cognitive style and cognitive resource deficit. Mikulincer and Shaver (2007a) suggested a model of Attachment System Functioning and Dynamics to explain the priming attachment security. According to this model, priming attachment security brought about positive self and others' representations, and priming attachment insecurity brought about negative representations. Then the representations extended and constructed the new behavior system under various situations. But this theory was limited to explain the specific population. We suggest that priming attachment security is kind of transfer based on the state security as psychological aspect and the activation of related brain regions as the physiological aspect. Transfer is a substantive psychological process, which refers to the dependency of human conduct, learning, or performance on prior experience. Transfer explored how individuals would transfer learning in one context to another, similar context – or how "improvement in one mental function" could influence a related one. Priming attachment security activate the safety internal working model following by the positive mental representation of peoples, and transfer to other positive aspects, such as more pro-social behaviors and disclosing, less discrimination, deception and moral disengagement behaviors among individuals with attachment security, while the opposites are in individuals with attachment insecurity. Meanwhile, there may be an inverse migration process for individuals with insufficient experience in security attachment. They acquired attachment security gradually through the observation of positive social interaction presenting by parents, peers and medias. In most cases, both the transfer and inverse transfer exist at the same time and contribute to the finally attachment style. In the future, researchers might focus on creating more refined and stringent experimental conditions to examine the effect of priming attachment security on social behaviors, such as the ecological validity in daily life situations. The researchers could also try to explore the effects of multiple attachment priming on social behavior, and the sustainability of these effects. Moreover, it is also worth to pay attention to further clarify the brain mechanism of the priming attachment security on social behavior using ERPs, fMRI and other technologies.
2018 Vol.  (3): 615-620 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 285KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
621
Environmental Awareness Could Buffer Consumers, Inaction?The Moderation of Skepticism toward Environmental Claims
In the face of serious environmental problems and strict environmental regulations, more and more enterprises begin to implement green innovation strategy. But the market shares of green innovative products have not increased significantly over the past decade. Hence, it becomes the responsibility to explore the psychological barriers to buy green products. Despite embracing the values of ethical consumerism, most consumers rarely support their beliefs at the check-out counter, which is considered to be the attitude–behavior gap. This study shed light on the attitude–behavior gap of ethical consumers from the perspective of time reference. Time reference had a positive predictive effect on the purchase intention of green products (B=0.54, SE=0.22, t=2.43, p=0.02), which meant individuals tended to buy green products in the future rather than now. On the basis of the above study, we will explore whether environmental awareness as a buffer effect was not regulated by skepticism toward environmental claims. In this study, the two groups were assigned to 0.5 and -0.5, after centering environmental awareness and skepticism toward environmental claims, we got dual interaction (time reference×environmental awareness, time reference×skepticism toward environmental claims, environmental awareness×skepticism toward environmental claims) and three interaction (time reference×environmental awareness×skepticism toward environmental claims). The whole model was extremely significant (R2=0.29, F=7.57, p<0.001). The main effect of time reference was not significant(B=0.33, SE=0.20, t=1.61, p>0.05).The main effect of environmental awareness was significant(B=0.44, SE=0.12, t=3.60, p<0.001), the main effect of skepticism toward environmental claims(B=-0.49, SE=0.12, t=-4, 24, p<0.001);All the dual interaction was not significant, triple interaction was significant (B=0.45, SE=0.23, t=2.00, p=0.04), the explanatory power of the three interactionsΔR2=0.02, p=0.04. The analysis of the interaction between environmental awareness and time reference when skepticism toward environmental claims was low. We found that the interaction between environmental awareness and time reference was significant(B=-0.81, SE=0.33, t=-2.46,p=0.02), which meant that environmental awareness could buffer the effect of time reference of green consumption. Specifically, for the subjects with low awareness of environmental protection, the time reference had positive predictive effect on the purchase intention of green products (B=1.21, SE=0.46, t=2.61, p=0.01, but for the subjects with high awareness of environmental protection the time reference had not significant predictive effect (B=-0.14, SE=0.38, t=-0.37, p>0.05). The analysis of the interaction between environmental awareness and time reference when skepticism toward environmental claims was high. We found that the interaction between environmental awareness and time reference was not significant (B=0.19, SE=0.37, t=0.51, p>0.05), which meant that environmental awareness could not buffer the effect of construal level of green innovation consumption. Conclusion: Time reference had positive predictive effect on the purchase intention of green products, which meant individuals tended to buy green products in the future rather than now. Importantly, skepticism could moderate the buffer effect of environmental awareness. In high level skepticism, environmental awareness could buffer the effect of construal level of green innovation consumption, but in low level skepticism environmental awareness couldn’t buffer the effect.
2018 Vol.  (3): 621-626 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 560KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
627 Guang-Rong JIANG
The Influence of Smog on the Ratio of Regional GDP Growth: Mediating Effect of Depression
Air pollution, especially the primary pollutant smog, causes enormous impacts on the mental and physical health of people as well as social development. The influence of the smog on mental health has received increasing attention in the West. However, very few empirical studies have addressed this issue in China. The present research aims to creatively explore the impact of the PM2.5 density and depression on the growth rate of regional GDP. Furthermore, through examining the mediating role of depression between the PM2.5 density and the growth rate of regional GDP, this study examines a possible mental mechanism underlying the effect of the PM2.5 density on the economy development. The researchers collected the PM2.5 densities, depression indices and the growth rates of regional GDP of 31 regions in China (including provincial capitals and directly-controlled municipalities) from 2013 to 2015. The indicator of depression used in this research was the depression index, which was based on the searching amount of the key word “depression” collected by Baidu Statistics Platform. The results showed that: (1) Between January 2013 and December 2015, there was a significant positive correlation between the PM2.5 density and the depression index of all regions (r= .33, p< .01), and the negative correlation between the depression index and the regional GDP growth rate was also quite obvious(r=-.37, p< .01); (2) Depression index played an absolute mediating role between the density of PM2.5 and the regional GDP growth rate; (3) During the period of January 2013 to December 2015 in Shanghai, the cross correlation between PM2.5 concentration and depression index was significant and reached its maximum value when lag=-6 (rR = .38, p< .05). Conclusion: The relationship between the smog and regional GDP growth rate might be influenced by the government’s macro-regulation and the whole economic environment. However, the negative effect of smog on emotions remains stable. The absolute meditating effect of depression on the PM2.5 density and regional GDP growth rate shows that smog might make people depressed, thus influence the regional economy growth. To some extent, this mediating model reveals the mental mechanism of how environment influences the social and economic development.
2018 Vol.  (3): 627-632 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 575KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
633
The Information Processing Process of Crisis Decision-Making for Self and Others:Evidence from Eye Movement
Crisis decision-making refers to the decisions making by decision-makers in crisis situations, that is in the limited conditions such as time, resources and information the quick judgment and behavioral response made by decision makers. In recent years, the researches of crisis decision-making are on the perspective of self-decision-making. In daily life, we also need to make decisions for others, such as doctors offer patients the most appropriate treatment. Many studies have shown that there are differences in self-other decision-making. Similarly, in the crisis, not only we need to make decisions for ourselves but also need to make decisions for the others. In other words, in facing the crisis those individuals who are in the crisis situations will making decisions for themselves in the first time to avoid property losses and to protect their life, leaders of crisis management will make decision for the others through the limited clues. Construal level theory proposed that high-level construal as relatively abstract, coherent, and superordinate mental representations, compared with low-level construal. Is it the same that making crisis decisions for ourselves and for others? This is also the focus of our study. The present study employed two experiments to investigate the self-other crisis decision-making process of information processing. In Experiment 1, the experiment design was an one-way (decision-makers’ role: self, other) within-subjects design. The materials were taken from Zheng (2007), modified with actual cases. These materials included individual’s decision tasks in the fire crisis. A total of 63 undergraduates participated in the experiment. Their eye movements were recorded with the iView X-RED eye tracker. The results showed that there were differences in self-other crisis decision-making process of information processing. Specifically, there were longer reading time, longer mean fixation time, more fixations, longer gaze duration and more regression for oneself than for others. Framing effect refers to different description on the same issue and lead to different decision making. It has been proved that the existence of framing effect in risky decision making, cross-time decision making, health and consumer decision making. What kind of differences it would have in self-others crisis decision making after we join the task framework? In Experiment 2, the experiment design was a 2 (decision-makers: self, others) × 2(task framework: positive, negative) mixed design. The decision-makers were the between-subjects factor, and the task framework was the within-subjects factor. The materials were taken from Zheng (2007), combined with the real cases happened in the golden week of 2006. These materials included the decision tasks of crisis encountered in outdoor activities. A total of 64 undergraduates participated in the experiment. Their eye movements were recorded with the iView X-RED eye tracker. The results showed that there were longer reading time, longer mean fixation time, more fixations, longer gaze duration and more regression for oneself than for others in the positive framework. And there had no differences in the negative framework. In conclusion, there had significant differences in self-other crisis decision-making, embodied in the differences of search time, depth and pattern for information. Positive task framework had significant influence on self-other crisis decision-making. There had no differences in the negative framework.
2018 Vol.  (3): 633-638 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 417KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
639 Shuai-Lei LIAN Huan-You CHAI
The Effect of Self-objectification on Female Undergraduates’ Restrained Eating: A Moderated Mediation Model
Restrained eating refers to consistent, cognitively mediated efforts to restrict eating for the purpose of weight control. Research shows that dietary restraint not only can result in feelings of inadequacy and anxiety, but also may play a causal role in the onset of eating disorders such as bulimia and binge eating, disturbances that have significant negative implications for individual’s health and functioning. According to studies in both China and abroad, the prevalence of eating disorders among younger groups was very high. Investigation and research of adolescent girls found that about 50% of the respondents reported dieting behaviors and the female undergraduates have become high-risk groups of restrained eating. Therefore, restrained eating behavior of female undergraduates should be paid more attention by researchers. In the past few years, researchers have shown increasing interest in self-objectification, because it has been demonstrated that self-objectification was an important predictor for restrained eating, but the mechanism need to be further studied. In recent years, social networking site (SNS) has become an indispensable social tool for college students, and it has an important effect on individual’s physical and mental development, therefore, the study of female undergraduates’ eating behavior should also consider the role of SNS. Some empirical studies have also indicated that body image comparison on SNS might play an important role in the relationship between self-objectification and restrained eating. In addition, previous researches showed that effortful control has a potential protective effect on adolescents’ bad behavior. As an important personality trait, effortful control may affect the way individuals process information of self-objectification and body image comparison on SNS, thus alleviating the negative effects of self-objectification and body image comparison on SNS. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the mediating role of body image comparison on SNS and the moderating role of effortful control in the effect of self-objectification on restrained eating. To conclude, the present study constructed a moderated mediation model and used it to explore the relationship among self-objectification, body image comparison on SNS, effortful control and restrained eating. A survey research method was adopted in which Self-Objectification Questionnaire, SNS Appearance Comparison Scale, Effortful Control subscale and the Revised Restraint Eating Scale were administered to 487 female undergraduates. The results indicated that: (1) Self-objectification was positively correlate with body image comparison on SNS and restrained eating, and body image comparison on SNS was also positively correlated with restrained eating, effortful control was negatively correlate with self-objectification, body image comparison on SNS and restrained eating; (2) Self-objectification could affect restrained eating through the mediation effect of body image comparison on SNS; (3) Both the direct effect of self-objectification on restrained eating and the mediation effect of body image comparison on SNS were moderated by effortful control, and both these two effects were much stronger among female undergraduates with low effortful control. The study uncovered the complex mechanism between self-objectification and female undergraduates’ restrained eating behavior. Self-objectification influenced female undergraduates’ restrained eating behavior, both the direct effect and the mediation effect of body image comparison on SNS were moderated by effortful control.
2018 Vol.  (3): 639-645 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 461KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
646
The influence of unethical pro-organizational behavior on career development: a moderated mediation of cross level
Over the last decade, unethical behaviors with self-benefited motivation have been widely concerned by scholars; yet far less attention has been put to relatively subtle actions, such as unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB). UPB refers to the action intended to benefit the organization and its members and violate societal ethics. It consists of two main components. First, it’s carried out to help the organization. In addition, UPB is also unethical. The prior research suggested that UPB may have negative in?uences on long-term organizational success. Therefore, many scholars called for developing more theoretical models of UPB. To date, existing research suggests that positive reciprocity beliefs, affective commitment, and transformational leadership can evoke UPB; however, few focused on the outcome of UPB. To address this issue, we build a cross-level moderated mediation model on employees’ UPB. We investigated the effects of employees’ UPB on career development. Moreover, we focus on testing the mediating role of supervisor-subordinate guanxi and the moderating role of ethical leadership. In this research, we tested the proposed theoretical framework using the data of 17 enterprises located in Zhejiang and Shanghai Provinces. In order to reduce the homologous error, we collected information from two sources. 399 employees and 92 leaders were valid finally. We first conducted a confirmatory factor analysis by using AMOS 17.0. We also employed HLM 6.08 to test our hypotheses since this is a cross-level research. Finally, we used Mplus 7.0 to test the moderating effects of ethical leadership on the indirect effects between the UPB and employee’s career development by a moderated path analysis. Generally, this research proposes and testes a moderated mediation model in which employees’ UPB influences career development, with supervisor-subordinate guanxi as mediator, ethical leadership as moderator. The results showed that: (1) Employees’ UPB was positively related to career development; (2) Such relationships were fully mediated by supervisor-subordinate guanxi; (3) Ethical leadership moderated the relationship between employees’ UPB and career development, such that this relationship was only significant when ethical leadership was high. Our findings provide several theoretical and practical implications. First, our research extends prior researches on the outcomes of UPB by examining the relationship between employees’ UPB and career development. Second, through exploring the mediating role of supervisor-subordinate guanxi, this study advances our understanding regarding the mediation process underlying the relationship between employees’ UPB and career development. Third, we further offer a unique view of when UPB may evoke career development. Beyond the theoretical implications highlighted above, there are a number of practical strategies that organizations and leaders can use to deal with employees’ UPB. First of all, organization leaders should provide specific ethical code for employees and inhibit employees’ UPB, which will finally destroy organizations’ development. In addition, it’s necessary to cultivate an ethical culture environment, which will enhance leaders’ and employees’ moral standards significantly. Inevitably, there are still some limitations. Finally, we bring a new view for the study of UPB by emphasizing the possibility of positive outcomes.
2018 Vol.  (3): 646-652 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 336KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
653 Yingqiu Pan
Sociocultural Analysis on the Mechanism of Migrant Workers’ Psychological Contract Breach
Psychological contract breach (PCB) refers to one's perception that the organization has failed to fulfill adequately his or her promised obligations (Robinson, 1996). Findings of previous research have intensively documented the detrimental effect of PCB on employees’ organizational citizenship behaviors. However, much less is known about the factors and the process underlying PCB. A few studies investigated the relation of personal (e.g., personality characteristics) or organizational (e.g., job resources and demands) factors with PCB and claimed that personal and organizational factors are closely related to PCB. Different from previous research, Thomas and colleagues (2016) argued that employees’ PCB occurs in organizational setting but factors that may shape the formation and changes of PCB are beyond individual- and organizational-level variables. Sociocultural factors may have a framing effect on the motivational and cognitive process of PCB. Following this sociocultural perspective, the present study is aimed to investigate how migrant workers’ cultural values of collectivism (e.g., collectivistic tendency and power distance) and social trust crisis (e.g., experience of being cheated) work together and shape migrant workers’ perceived PCB in organizational setting. 676 migrant workers (418 males, 253 females, 5 unreported) were recruited from 12 manufacturing enterprises located in Yangtze River Delta and coastal areas in Southeast China. All participants were randomly drawn from the production site in each manufacturing enterprise and were requested to complete questionnaires during the break time from work. The age of the participants ranged from 18 to 53 years old, with an average age of 30.66. The years of education that participants completed ranged from 6 to 14 years. All questionnaires were administrated to participants to by the same researcher. Each participant received 20 RMB for the completion of questionnaires. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the prediction of migrant workers’ cultural values of collectivism and experience of being cheated to their perceived PCB. It was found that collectivistic tendency has no direct effect on perceived PCB but contributes to perceived PCB negatively via the mediating role of organizational justice. Power distance positively contributes to perceived PCB directly as well as indirectly via the mediating role of organizational justice. On the contrary, experience of being cheated positively predicts perceived PCB directly and indirectly via the mediating role of organizational justice. The results indicated that sociocultural factors have an evident impact on migrant workers’ perceived PCB. Collectivistic tendency and power distance dramatically diminish migrant workers’ perceived PCB while experience of being cheated significantly strengthens migrant workers’ perceived PCB. The results provided solid evidence that PCB is not simply an individual psychological process but shaped by sociocultural factors in a complicated way. In sum, the present study extended the understanding of the extant literature on the antecedents as well as the process that shape employees’ perceived PCB. It is suggested that, to develop and maintain stable psychological contract between employees and their organizations, cultural values of collectivism and trust construction among employees should receive enough attention at the organizational level.
2018 Vol.  (3): 653-659 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 371KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
660
The application of GKT paradigm in determining criminal suspects: an ERP lie detection study
Criminal crime has become a universal social problem faced by all countries. With the concealment of criminal behavior and the diversification of criminal means, the traditional methods of investigation have become increasingly unable to meet the needs of the current criminal investigation. Therefore, an effective and reliable lie detection technique is urgently needed to meet the current severe situation of combating crime. This study adopted GKT (Guilty knowledge test) paradigm, with the suspect as the object, with real crime scene material, investigated the validity and reliability of the ERP index (P300\CNV) which associated with lie detection during real criminal environment. Twenty-six subjects were participate in the present study, which are all male and real criminal suspects. And the age range is 19-46 year old. The GKT paradigm involved three stimuli: target stimulus, probe stimulus and irreverent stimulus. Those stimuli all presents as pictures, and the emergence proportion of the target, probe and irrelevant stimuli were 1:1:4. Participants were required to respond to whether the stimulus they had ever seen before a key appears immediately. At the same time, EEG activity was recorded. Repeated measures of variance analysis were performed on the behavior data (accuracy and response times (RTs)) and the ERP index (P300 and CNV), separately. Behavior results showed that, the accuracy of target stimuli were significantly smaller than probe stimuli and irreverent stimuli while the accuracy of probe stimulus and irrelevant stimulus was not significant. In addition, the RTs of probe stimuli were significantly smaller than target stimuli and irreverent stimuli, whereas the RTs of target stimulus was greater than irrelevant stimulus, but not significant. Moreover, the ERP results showed that, compared with target stimuli and irreverent stimuli, the P300 (400-500 ms, localized in Fz、Cz、Pz、Oz、POz、FCz) amplitude of the probe stimuli was greater than the target stimulus and irrelevant stimulus, whereas the P300 amplitude of target stimulus was significantly greater than the irrelevant stimulus. The CNV (800~1700ms, localized in Fz、Cz、Pz、Oz、POz、FCz) amplitude of the irrelevant stimulus was significantly lower than the amplitude of the probe stimulus and target stimulus, whereas the difference between the probe stimulus and target stimulus was not significant. Furthermore, bootstrap method was used to calculate the detection rate with P300 peak value as the index, and the result found that the detection rate of P300 was 92.5%. Taken together, these findings showed three conclusions. First, ERP lie detection technology is applicable to lie detection in the field of criminal investigation and the GKT paradigm could indeed induced the P300 and CNV components. Second, compared with CNV, P300 is a reliable lie detection index, which can effectively detect the details of criminal, and has higher detection rate and better stability, further promote the application of ERP lie detection technology in criminal investigation. Finally, as a lie-detection index, the validity of the CNV component need to be tested in the future, and its generation may require certain conditions.
2018 Vol.  (3): 660-666 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 713KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
667 Xiu-Fang DU Na NaLIU
The Effect of Monetary Incentives and Decision Maker’s Roles on Moral Decision-Making: Based on Process Dissociation Approach
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of decision maker’s role and monetary incentives on moral decision-making. Using Process Dissociation approach, A 3 (monetary incentive: no monetary incentive, monetary reward, monetary punishment ) × 2 (decision maker’s role: actor, observer) experiment was designed to make clear how money and decision maker’s role affect deontological inclination and utilitarian inclination. The results were as follow: Monetary incentives had no significant effect on actor and observer’s deontological inclination; The decision maker’s deontological inclination was higher than that of observers. Moreover, the decision maker’s utilitarian inclination was higher than that of observers only in the condition of monetary reward.
2018 Vol.  (3): 667-673 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 384KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
674 Yong-Xiang Chen
The Influence of Quantity of Resources on College Students' Mate Preferences
How to choose the right spouse is an important decision for young Chinese people. At the same time, with the rapid growth of Chinese market economy, people have realized the importance of resources to the development. However, the resources of each person's mate selection (such as their own and family status) are limited. Thus it is a problem for young Chinese people about how to choose a long-term mate according to their limited resources. In this study, 152 Chinese college students were asked to design their ideal long-term mates, according to their assignment of 3 budgets (20, 40 and 60 mate coins) to 10 features. Since the budget was a within-subject variable, the test order of the 3 budgets were counter-balanced between different participants. For each features, the participants were asked to assign 0 to 10 mate coins, which represent 0 to 100 percentile. Thus, 1 coin = Level 1 = 10th percentile, which means that the potential marriage partner were better than 10% of all peers in this feature. Before the test, it was emphasized that the number of mating coins they used must be equal to the number of the coins provided. In this study, the "necessity" was defined as follows: the mate coins allocated to the features were more than average (i.e., 10% of all) when one's budget was limited, and the distribution ratio significantly reduced when one's budget was increased. The definition of "luxury" was: the mate coins allotted to the features were less than average (i.e., 10% of all) when one's budget was limited, and the assigned ratio significantly raised when one's budget was increased. Thus the influence of quantity of resources on college students' mate preferences was explored. Besides, the paradigm of this study was the same as that of Li, Bailey, Kenrick, & Linsenmeier (2002)'s study, and the features were similar. Hence the results of the two studies were compared. The results of the present study showed that: 1) The scarcity of resources had impact on people's mating preferences: when mating resources were limited, the participants were more biased toward the features associated with loyalty and health (i.e., the necessities); however, when their own resources increased, they also increased their focus on luxuries such as creativity. 2) Gender differences existed in mating preferences. When mate resources were low, women made more emphasis on male's socioeconomic status, while men made more emphasis on female's loyalty. When the resources increased, there is no gender difference. Sex differences could be well explained by evolutionary psychology. In order to cope with the pressure of survival and reproduction and to ensure the flourishing of future generations in society, women might be more invested in the social and economic status. However, for men, woman's health was an important cue of the birth of a healthy child. In Li et al. (2002)'s study, physical attractiveness was a necessity to men in the United States, yet this result was not replicated in Chinese college students in the present study. This result implies cultural differences in young people's mate preferences, though the influence of resources on people's mating preferences was validated in both cultures.
2018 Vol.  (3): 674-679 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 779KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
680
The Inverted U-Shaped Relationship between Empowering Leadership and Task Performance: The Role of Sense of Self-Determination
Whether empowering leadership promotes employee’s performance has attracted much attention. However, this body of literature found mixed results these years. The seemingly contradictory findings suggest that there may be a complex relationship between these two variables. To address the ambiguity and the lack of clarifying in empowering leadership research, this paper presents a curvilinear prediction. Drawing on the cost of task autonomy and self-determination theory, we examined a potentially inverted U-shaped relationship between empowering leadership on employee’s task performance, as well as the mediation effect of sense of self-determination in the relationship in the context of Chinese organizations. Data was collected from 550 full-time employees and their immediate leader from a variety of industries in Shandong, Beijing and Hebei. 478 matched data were available, yielding an effective response rate of 86.91%. Cronbatch’s alpha coefficients showed acceptable reliabilities of all measurements. Among the variables, empowering leadership, sense of self-determination and demographic variables were collected from employees, while task performance was gathered from their immediate leaders. Following prior studies, we controlled employees’ gender, age, education and dyadic tenure with their leaders, to rule out alternative explanations. Correlation analysis, confirmative factor analysis, hierarchical regression modeling and bootstrapping analysis were used to test the hypotheses. We adopted SPSS 21 and Mplus7.0 software to do the analysis. Consistent with our hypotheses, regression results revealed that: (1) Empowering leadership had an inverted U-shaped relationship with task performance, such that the relationship was positive for low to moderate levels of empowering leadership, and negative for moderate to high levels of empowering leadership. (2) Empowering leadership and sense of self-determination were positively related. (3) Sense of self-determination had an inverted U-shaped relationship with task performance. (4) The relationship between empowering leadership and task performance was mediated by sense of self-determination. These results highlighted the too-much-of-a-good-thing effect (TMGT effect) of empowering leadership, whereby the positive impact on task performance reach inflection points at which the impact turns negative, through facilitating sense of self-determination as the mediation mechanism. The current study provides three theoretical contributions: first, this study investigates the relationship between empowering leadership and task performance under Chinese culture backgrounds. Besides, integrates two competing effects of empowering leadership on employee’s task performance, which extends the literature of TMGT effect in the field of organizational behavior. Furthermore, we clarify the influencing mechanism of this influence, revealing that sense of self-determination also has an inverted U-shaped relationship with task performance, thereby mediates main effect. Meanwhile, this study also offers managerial implications that both excessive and defective power sharing will be detrimental to employees’ task performance, therefore managers should limit the application of empowerment to avoid the negative outcomes. This study has several limitations and could be improved in future studies. First, the present study is cross-sectional, which restrict the casual inferences. Future studies could further explore the relationship through longitudinal research design. Second, alternative underlie mechanisms can be further investigated since sense of self-determination serves as a partial mediator. Moreover, future studies can explore potential boundary conditions for the relationship between empowering leadership and task performance.
2018 Vol.  (3): 680-686 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 561KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
687
The Research on the Impact of Managerial Trustworthy Behavior on Employee Constructive Voice
Employee voice behavior has attracted much attention with the context of knowledge innovation, which focuses on transform and challenge of work procedures and methods within the workplace, and plays a positive roles for organizational development and competition. Although recent studies on voice behavior have started to recognize the importance of leaders, few empirical efforts have been made to explore the impact of managerial trustworthy behavior on employee constructive voice and without elaborating the mechanism between managerial trustworthy behavior on employee constructive voice. This topic needs further exploration and investigation. In the present study, Based on the theory of person-organization fit, we exam the mediating role of the person-supervisor value congruence and employee perceived cohesion between managerial trustworthy behavior and employee constructive voice, and the moderation role of colleague negative pressure among managerial trustworthy behavior, person-supervisor value congruence and employee perceived cohesion. In order to reduce the common method bias, 299 employees date in China were collected through two separate surveys on separate occasions. The employee evaluated the scale of managerial trustworthy behavior, person-supervisor value congruence and employee perceived cohesion, and answer essential information. The supervisor evaluated the scale of employee constructive voice six month later. The result of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the five-factor model was better than other models, and all variables had high validity and reliability. After date analyses, the results indicated that: (1) Managerial trustworthy behavior significantly and positively affected the person-supervisor value congruence, employee perceived cohesion and employee constructive voice; (2) Person-supervisor value congruence and employee perceived cohesion partially mediated the relationship of managerial trustworthy behavior and employee constructive voice; (3)Colleague negative pressure negatively moderated the relationship of managerial trustworthy behavior-employee perceived cohesion, that is, the lower level of colleague negative pressure, the higher positive relationship of managerial trustworthy behavior and employee perceived cohesion; (4) Colleague negative pressure negatively didn’t moderate the relationship of managerial trustworthy behavior and person-supervisor value congruence. Further, we drawn an interaction picture to confirm the moderation effect of colleague negative pressure on the relationship between managerial trustworthy behavior and employee perceived cohesion. The mediation effect of employee perceived cohesion was moderated by colleague negative pressure as well. In conclusion, in order to better comprehension employee constructive voice, this study established a mediated moderation model to inspect the complicated relationship of managerial trustworthy behavior and employee constructive voice, and revealed the underlying mental mechanism of them. In the meantime, we also examined the boundary condition of the managerial trustworthy behavior and employee constructive voice. The contributions were mainly embodied in two aspects: (a) Theoretically, this research answered the question of how and when the managerial trustworthy behavior affected employee constructive voice, and had great significance to enrich the theoretical research of employee constructive voice;(b) In practice, supervisors could strengthen and develop the value congruence between themselves and their subordinates, pay close attention to the role of employee perceived cohesion, and reduce negative influence of colleague negative pressure to promote employee constructive voice.Finally, we pointed out the limitation in this research and encouraged scholars to overcome these questions in future research.
2018 Vol.  (3): 687-693 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 534KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
694
Can Risk preferences Transmit in an Intergenerational Manner? —Multidisciplinary Evidence and Meta-theoretical Thinking
Risk preferences as a kind of stable psychological tendency to deal with the risk of individual, the endogeneity, heterogeneity and dynamic of risk preferences are gradually proved by multidisciplinary studies such as psychology, behavioral and experimental economics, and economic sociology. When discussing the intergenerational transmission of economic status and attitude, economists pay great attention to the above attributes and use them to deduce, expand, and prove the limited existence of the intergenerational transmission of risk preferences. Some important research results have created new research ideas and perspectives, a research framework and approach are basically set up, thus enabling the risk preferences study to shift from the horizontal perspective to the vertical perspective, from the dependent variable to the independent variable. The Specific performance as the connotation of intergenerational transmission of risk preferences changes from general risk to specific risk, extension extends from self-reported risk to real behavior risk, the specific mechanism of intergenerational transmission gradually deepens the concentration, and the joint research of other preferences intergenerational transmission gradually concerned. At present, there are still a limited number of research results, weak theoretical framework, different sources of data, lack of representation, more concentrated research, relatively single. And these limitations for the follow-up study to reserve a lot of space. In the future, people can continue to deepen and rich the theoretical connotation and framework mechanism of intergenerational transmission of risk preferences, improve and perfect the research paradigm and method of intergenerational transmission of risk preferences, expand the research content and practice of intergenerational transmission of risk preferences, open on and innovate perspective and thinking of intergenerational transmission of risk preferences. Thus enriching the whole research framework and content system of "risk preference" and "intergenerational transmission" in theory, and providing new vision and path for understand and respond to the wealth and income inequality, education, poverty and other major social issues in practice.
2018 Vol.  (3): 694-699 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 557KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
700 Jia-Mei LU
A review of the behavioral measures of forgiveness and its cognitive neural mechanism
Forgiveness is regarded as a complex phenomenon and researchers have no consensus on the definition of forgiveness. However, most researchers agree that forgiveness involved a prosocial change toward the offender which concerning a decrease in negative thoughts, emotions, motivations, and behaviors toward a transgressor, as well as an increase in positive thoughts, emotions, motivations, and behaviors toward a transgressor. Previous studies have found that forgiveness is positively correlated with improvement of relationship quality and increases of subjective well-being, negatively related to neuroticism, depression, and rumination. Forgiveness were also found to be related to physical health. All these factors make forgiveness become an interesting research subject of psychologists. In the present article, we reviewed evidence concerning behavioral measures of forgiveness and cognitive neural mechanism of forgiveness. We introduced four behavioral measures paradigm of forgiveness including revised Cyberball task, revised Dictator game, revised Prisoner's dilemma game and revised Taylor aggression paradigm. The results of behavioral paradigm found that these behavioral measures can elicited the same feelings as a transgression in laboratory and may be useful to assess forgiveness which was supported by significantly correlation between self-reported forgiveness and behavioral response. Imaging studies examining cortical responses to forgiveness have implicated several brain regions, including medial prefrontal cortex, ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior parietal cortex, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and temporoparietal junction, typically those associated with social cognition, cognitive control, empathy and theory of mind. Future research should further explore the influence of different behavioral measures on forgiveness process. Which aspect of forgiveness was assessed by each of the behavioral measures of forgiveness and whether these different aspects of forgiveness overlap? Whether simple behavioral responses among different measures can reflect and uncover the mechanism of high psychological process like forgiveness? In addition, the cognitive neural mechanism of forgiveness remain unclear and need to pay more attention. How different cortical activation to forgiveness collaborate with each other to facilitate individuals’ forgiveness after experiencing transgression? How other psychological processes such as the ability of cognitive control influence forgiveness? what’s the cognitive neural mechanism of the influence of cognitive control on forgiveness? Finally, the brain basis associated with forgiveness still unknown. With the development of multimode imaging methods (resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, structural MRI, diffusion tensor imaging), it is possible to explored the brain structural and brain spontaneous activity associations with cognition, emotion and ability from the perspective of individual difference. Thus, future research should explore the brain structural and functional substrate of forgiveness.
2018 Vol.  (3): 700-705 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 3252KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
706
Leader integrity: Conception, measurement, and prospect
In recent years, the corporate scandals and management malfeasances in organizations like Enron, Adelphia Communications, WorldCom, and Tyco International, occurred frequently and have sparked a growing interest about leader integrity. As a frontier topic in the field of leader research, leader integrity has garnered extensive attention from organizational scholars and practitioners. Leader integrity has long been mentioned as a key part of effective leadership. However, researches on leader integrity’s conception, dimension, measurement, mediation and moderation remain incomplete. By systematically clarifying the conception of leader integrity, its dimension, measurement, antecedents and consequences, this study summarizes and evaluates relative research at home and abroad. There are two recent definitions of leader integrity within the organizational literature. First, leader integrity is defined as a general description of moral and ethical behavior, which includes perceived leader integrity and some aspects of ethical leader behavior. Second, leader integrity refers to perception of the consistency between a leader’s words and deeds. However, leader integrity is often associated with or mentioned in conjunction with individual traits such as honesty, fairness, sincerity and trustworthiness. In some cases, integrity has simply been viewed as synonymous with honesty. The basic definition of leader integrity should emphasize moral behavior and consistency between a person’s espoused values and behavior. Future research should further explore the definition of leader integrity and provide a theoretical foundation for leader integrity at home and abroad. In the field of leadership, two instruments have been developed to measure integrity. The first measure of leader integrity was developed by Craig and Gustafson (1998). The second instrument is Simons,Friedman,Liu and McLean’s (2007) Leadership Behavior Integrity Scale. Both instruments rely upon subordinates’ perceptions of leader behavior. There may be other ways to measure integrity which complement the current approaches. For example, a neutral third-party observer may be able to provide a measure of integrity by careful observation. Self-rating of integrity may also mitigate potential bias from social desirability. A plethora of empirical research has looked at identifying factors that influence leader integrity, such as individual differences, leadership styles, and leadership intervention. Some qualitative studies suggested that organizational characteristics, organizational climate, individual traits were correlated with leadership integrity. Empirical research has confirmed the impact of leadership integrity on followers’ attitudes, behaviors, and performance. In the team level, some studies found that team leader integrity was positively related to team members’ moral intention, trust, and innovation. Although scholars have investigated the effects of leader integrity on followers’ outcomes, considerably less is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms. In the terms of mediation, previous studies indicated that leader behavioral integrity was not directly related to follower job performance, but was related indirectly via trust in the leader and follower satisfaction with the leader. According to contingency theory of leadership, leadership effectiveness is largely influenced by subordinates’ individual differences. The individual differences may play a key role on the relationship between leader integrity and followers’ outcomes. There are several limitations in the previous studies, which, in turn point to promising directions for future research. First, future research should explore the definition of leader integrity and develop its measurement in the Chinese organizational context. Second, based on the perspective of individual characteristics, future research should focus on examining the antecedents of leader integrity, such as self-control, conscientiousness, and machiavellism. Third, from the perspective of culture values, future research should investigate the effectiveness of leader integrity in the Chinese organizational context.
2018 Vol.  (3): 706-712 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 790KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
713 wen fangfang
The Minimal Group Paradigm: Operation, Psychological Mechanism and New Application
The minimal group paradigm of social categorization provides a simple and effective tool for the intergroup relations research, which has been widely used by social psychologists. In addition to the classic task procedure, random assignment procedure, the minimal group paradigm developed the new classification operations such as imagination procedure, memorization procedure, self-involvement procedure and minimal group interaction paradigm etc. Classic task procedure, random assignment procedure, imagination procedure and memorization procedure can be used in the explicit measurement of minimal group effect. And the implicit minimal group effect, it is preferred to use the memorization procedure, while researchers should be cautious to the use of classic task procedure. Therefore, the researchers should choose the use of different minimal group paradigms according to their research purpose. In general, the new groups generated by the minimal group paradigm mainly include two types. One is the equal groups. In the early days, most of the new different groups produced by the minimal group paradigm were equal in terms of group status and group size. The other is unequal groups. Nowadays, the intergroup relations between groups with high-low or advantage-disadvantage status are gradually becoming the focus of relevent research. Furthermore, compared to the real social categorization, the minimal group paradigm has the characteristics of randomness, complete anonymity and unrelated self-interest. And the researchers are increasingly concerned with the authenticity of the task and response of minimal group paradigm. Initially, the dependent variable of the minimal group paradigm is the allocation behavior in the group distribution matrix. In general, the Tajfel matrix is used to assign different rewards to the participants. This classic matrix is used to measure how to select the different reward strategies for the members of ingroup and outgroup, including four strategies of Fairness (F), Maximum Difference (MD), Maximum Joint Profit (MJP) and Maximum Ingroup Profit (MIP). Recent research has shown that compared to the strategy of MIP, people tended to use the strategy of MD. The main effect of the minimal group paradigm is the ingroup favoritism, and the researchers interpret the psychological mechanism through group-inferring-self, self-inferring-group, and integrative model of social identification. Among them, the perspective of group-inferring-self includes positive self-esteem and self-stereotyping, and the perspective of self-interring-group is mainly from the explains of self-anchoring, self-projection and I-sharing. And integrative model of social identification provides a good integration of these two perspectives, which provides a new perspective for the dynamic interaction of personal self and social self. Relative to the perspective of group-inferring-self, the researchers provide more empirical support for self-inferring-group, but as to the precise psychological mechanism of the minimal group effect still need more empirical test. In addition to the intergroup bias research, the minimal group paradigm is widely used in social cognitive processing (such as face coding and recognition, etc.), psychological preference (such selective trust and positive traits evaluation, etc.), interaction behavior (such as effective communication, cooperation, punishment and loyalty behavior, etc.) and neurophysiological reactions (such as blood pressure, cardiovascular response and face temperature response, etc.). It is the main direction of future research to further examine the diverse procedures of the minimal group paradigm, to improve ecological validity, to explore the potential psychological mechanisms of the effects, and to strengthen the local inspection and cross-cultural research.
2018 Vol.  (3): 713-719 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 306KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
720
The Design and Selection Strategies of Adaptive Multi-group Testing for Cognitive Diagnosis
It took incredible investment of time and effort to construct item bank. Selection strategy, which is the most significant component of Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing (CD-CAT), should react quickly and pay attention to the utilization of item bank. The two widely used item selection methods in CD-CAT are Shannon Entropy (SHE) and Posterior Weighted Kullback-Leibler (PWKL). The characteristic of SHE method and PWKL method is higher classification accuracy, but the utilization rate of item bank is uneven. Learning from the idea of on-the-fly multistage adaptive testing, a new test named adaptive multi-group testing for cognitive diagnosis (AMST) was proposed. AMST is composed of several groups and each group has multiple items which were assembled by the interim knowledge state and its upper and lower bounds. The combination of AMST and SHE named AMST-SHE and AMST coupled with PWKL named AMST-PWKL, AMST-SHE and AMST-PWKL are the optimal design for AMST. Based on the Deterministic Inputs, Noisy-and-gate, a simulation study was operated to investigate the efficiency of the AMGT-SHE method and the AMGT-PWKL method compared with the SHE method, the PWKL method and the Random selection method for four item pools with different structures. Pattern correct rate, test length, average exposure rate and time consuming per person were calculated. Suppose that the attributes are mutually independent and the number of attributes was 5. Test length was fixed to 25, and the size of the item pool was fixed to 300. Variable length test stops when the largest posterior probability of knowledge state was not smaller than 0.9 and the second largest was larger than 0.1. The Monte Carlo simulation results showed that (1) the pattern correct rate and time consuming of the AGMT-SHE method were better than those of the AGMT-PWKL method, but the average exposure rate was opposite. For the AGMT-SHE method and the AGMT-PWKL method, the simpler the item types in item bank, the higher the pattern correct rate; (2) when the item types are rich in item bank, the average exposure rate and time consuming of the AMGT-PWKL method and the AMGT-SHE method are far better than those of the PWKL method and SHE method, especially on time consuming, the former is one-ninth of the latter, but test length would be increased; (3) the items of initial stage, which came from each column of the reachability matrix R replaced the random selection, contributes to improve pattern correct rate. AGMT, structured shadow pool by lattice theory, which combined AGMT - PWKL and AGMT - SHE, compared with the PWKL method and the SHE method, when item types are rich, at the price of increasing test length and losing a little pattern correct rate, it can greatly improve the uniformity of item bank and it is greatly beneficial for high-risk test. Paid attention to security in the test, the AMGT - PWKL method performed better and Paid attention to the item bank security and accuracy of the test, we should adopt the AMGT - SHE method. The AGMT-SHE method and AGMT-PWKL method are the locally optimal solution, not the globally optimal solution, so it can satisfy the high response speed request of CAT.
2018 Vol.  (3): 720-726 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 696KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
727
Comparison of CDM and Its Selection: a Saturated model, a Simple Model or a Mixed Model?
Recent advances in a category of analytic methods collectively referred to as cognitive diagnostic models (CDM) show great promise. A large number of CDM have been proposed, The deterministic inputs, noisy, ‘‘and’’gate (DINA) model, an example of a conjunctive model, assigns the highest probability of answering correctly to examinees that possess all of the required attributes. Disjunctive models, however, assume that lacking a particular attribute can be off-set by possessing another. For example, the deterministic inputs, noisy, ‘‘or’’ gate (DINO) model assigns the highest probability of answering correctly to examinees with at least one of the required attributes. Examples of other specific, interpretable CDM are the reduced reparametrized unified model (RRUM; Hartz,2002), the additive CDM(ACDM). Apart from these specific CDM, general or saturated CDM subsuming many widely used specific CDM have also been developed, including the generalized DINA (GDINA) model, the general diagnostic model (GDM), and the log-linear CDM (LCDM). Although general CDM provide better model-data fit, reduced CDM have more straightforward interpretations, are more stable, and can provide more accurate classifications when used correctly. Although a multitude of CDM are available, it is not clear how the most appropriate model for a specific test can be identified because the cognitive processes in answering items may be complicated. An important decision that researchers make is that of choosing either a CDM that allows for compensatory relationships among skills or one that allows for non-compensatory relationships among skills. With a compensatory model, a high level of competence on one skill can compensate for a low level of competence on another skill in performing a task. Specifically, a general model (i.e., GDINA model) can be tested statistically against the fits of some of the specific CDM it subsumes using the Wald test. The Wald test was originally proposed by de la Torre (2011) for comparing general and specific models at the item level (i.e., one item at a time) thereby creating the possibility of using multiple CDM within the same test which means each item has a appropriate CDM (Mixed CDM). In order to compare the Mixed model and other model performance in the paper and pencil test, Using a complex simulation study we investigated parameter recovery, classification accuracy, and performance of a item-fit statistics for correct and misspecified diagnostic classification models within a GDINA framework. The basic manipulated test design factors included the number of respondents, item quality generating model, fitted model and Q-matrix. The three sample sizes were N = 500, 1,000, and 2,000, item quality were high, medium and low, generating model and fitted model were GDINA, Mixed, DINA, DINO, ACDM and RRUM, Q-matrix included simple Q-matrix and complex Q-matrix. The study found that overall under all experimental conditions, the Mixed CDM had the best performance. Simply take into account classification accuracy rate, Mixed in low quality advantage is more obvious in the tests, when item quality is high, Mixed and GDINA performance is almost identical, but under all experimental conditions, Mixed was better than GDINA in information-based fit indexes AIC and item parameter recovery.
2018 Vol.  (3): 727-734 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 294KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
735
Application of Spectral Clustering Algorithm under Various Attribute Hierarchical Structures for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment
Clustering analysis for cognitive diagnostic assessment is a significant approach to classify examinees into several categories matching their attribute profiles which can reflect the status of mastering or nonmastering each attribute. These methods belong to the nonparametric technique that dose not require the estimation of parameters, and are less restrictive and often computationally more efficient than parametric technique, such as cognitive diagnostic models. Better yet, many nonparametric classification algorithms can be easily implemented in most statistical software packages, R or matlab. The K-means is the most classical algorithm among the clustering analysis methods, and has widely application in real world. The K-means clustering analysis for cognitive diagnostic assessment requires the Q-matrix only, which describes the relationship between attributes and items. The previous study has proved that the K-means algorithm has fairly favorable classified ability for cognitive diagnostic assessment comparing the cognitive diagnostic models. However, the spectral clustering algorithm (SCA) which is the powerful algorithm for clustering has been broadly applied to many fields, including image segmentation, neural information processing, biology, and large-scale assessment in psychology. The SCA is easy to operate, and often outperforms traditional clustering algorithms such as the K-means algorithm. In this article, we introduce the SCA for classifying examinees into attribute-homogeneous groups based on their responses. However, the starting values have a large effect on the classified performance for both SCA and the K-means algorithm. So, we adopted Ward’s and random starting values when using SCA, and best, Ward’s and random starting values when using the K-means algorithm. Totally, five methods were considered in this article. They are SCA-Ward’s, SCA-R, K-means-best, K-means-Ward’s, and K-means-R, respectively. The simulation studies were implemented to compare the classified performance between the SCA and the K-means algorithm using two indices, agreement between partitions and the within-cluster homogeneity, under four factors: the attribute hierarchical structures (Linear, Convergent, Divergent, or Independent), the number of examinees (100 or 500), the number of attributes (4 or 5), and the slippage levels (5%, 10%, or 15%). Thus, there were totally 96 (=4×2×3×4) experimental conditions to investigate. 30 data sets were simulated and analyzed under each experimental condition in order to reduce the random error. Simulation results showed that: (1) the performance of classified results for SCA was always better than those for K-means algorithm in various conditions. Especially, the SCA performed robuster when the conditions became severe. (2) the classified results was the best under linear structure, followed by convergent and divergent structures, and the independent structure had poorest classified ability. (3) with increase of the number of attributes and the slippage levels, the accuracy of classification of examinees declined. (4) with increase of the number of examinees, the accuracy of classification also increased. But the reverse results would be appeared for the k-means algorithm, which meant the accuracy of classification decreased. Finally, some issues for the SCA and research directions are discussed. In conclusion, the SCA has much better classified performance than K-means algorithm. The practitioners should consider implementing the SCA to classify examinees into attribute-homogeneous groups in real world to obtain accurate attribute profiles.
2018 Vol.  (3): 735-742 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1564KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
743
The Emotional Stroop Effect for Depression-related Individuals under Negative Mood: Evidence from ERPs
Within the field of selective attention, depression has long been associated with a mood-congruent processing bias which will distribute more resources to the highlighted social stimuli such as the negative information. Some researchers proposed that the sensitivity and the involvement to the negative information are the key factors for prolonging and intensifying depression. While this bias has been documented using a number of well-established paradigms ranging from the emotional Stroop, dot probe and exogenous cueing paradigms, this area has seen somewhat inconsistent results. On the basis of the current literature, it is fair to point that the more general attentional and cognitive control deficits associated with depression in tasks not involving natural negative mood, and that might be one of the factors which affect the results for depression. Furthermore, the remained conclusions are mostly from the behavioral data and the neuroscientific work in this area is lacking. In the current study, an event-related brain potentials experiment was carried out to investigate the emotional Stroop effect for the depression-related university students under the sad mood which was elicited by the sad film editing. The results showed that the depressed participants presented consistent tendency in P1 and N1 amplitude induced by the emotional words under the neutral mood or negative mood elicited by the film editing, not showing the Stroop effect. However, the error rate of neutral word was higher under the negative mood than in neutral situation for the normal participants, with the smaller P1 and larger N1 amplitudes induced by negative emotional words under sad film editing condition than under neutral condition, suggesting that the Stroop effect was observed for the normal participants. The results suggest that, under negative state mood, the depressed individuals show attention disengagement difficulties and insufficient resources. Therefore they cannot deal with emotional conflict very well. The possible underlying mechanisms of this deficiency might be due to the limited inhibition, shifting and updating processes of control attention interferes with the negative state mood. Furthermore, the results verify the impaired disengagement hypothesis of depression, and suggest that the depressed individuals are often predicted to be excessively involved in the state of sad mood during their control attention processing. For the depressed individuals, the deficit of the attention results in the involvement of much more resources to the sad mood so as to affect their emotional regulation. The dysfunction of the emotional regulation would further negatively affect their following cognitive processing. The current work provided the psychophysiological evidence for investigating the relation between attention and emotion for depression.
2018 Vol.  (3): 743-748 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 461KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
749
Can externals get more benefits: the moderating role of mindfulness in the impact of perceived stress on negative emotions in daily life
Daily hassles are frequent yet a danger to our health. When daily events are challenging and appraised as an obstruction, we perceive them as stressors, and they typically trigger negative emotions, particularly when we fail to cope with them. Mindfulness can enhance individuals’ emotion regulation when facing stressors and can help individual to have more toleration and acceptance to negative sensations and feelings. Moreover, researchers found mindfulness predicted lower stress perceptions and fewer negative emotions. It is possible that the dynamic relation between perceived stress and negative emotions in daily life may vary among individuals with different levels of dispositional mindfulness. Individuals with external locus of control usually have a poor performance in stress coping process. However, externals tend to take less actions when facing stressors, which means that they have more chances to switch into the “being mode” (vs. “doing mode”) of mindful state, compared to those internals. Therefore, it is possible that mindfulness may be more helpful for the externals. The current study investigated the relation between perceived stress and negative emotions in daily life measured by ambulatory assessment, and the moderations of mindfulness and locus of control were also tested. A total of 95 college students completed the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Rotter’s Locus of Control Scale (LOCS). Then they participated in an ambulatory assessment procedure in which they reported their perceived stress and negative emotions (including anxiety, depression, anger, fatigue, discomfort and overall negative emotion) in daily life twice a day for 14 consecutive days. Multilevel model was conducted to analyze the data by HLM 7.0. Results indicated that (1) at within-person level, perceived stress at time t positively predicted all negative emotions at time t+1; (2) mindfulness was associated with lower prediction of perceived stress on negative emotions (including anxiety, fatigue, discomfort and overall negative emotion) in daily life; (3) internal locus of control was associated with lower prediction of perceived stress on negative emotions (including anxiety, fatigue, discomfort and overall negative emotion) in daily life; (4) the moderation of mindfulness in the prediction of perceived stress on negative emotions (including anxiety, fatigue, discomfort and overall negative emotion) for externals were stronger than that for internals. In summary, the current study revealed the dynamic association between perceived stress and negative emotions in daily life, and explored how this association varies in individuals with different mindfulness levels, which indicated the protection of mindfulness in stress process. Furthermore, the current study found that mindfulness may be more helpful for externals (compared with internals) to improve stress coping. This finding suggests that mindfulness-based interventions may be more useful for individuals with internal locus of control in stress reduction. Future study should generalize the findings to clinical samples and should investigate whether mindfulness-based interventions can change the dynamic relation between perceived stress and negative emotions in daily life and whether the externals can get more benefits from the interventions.
2018 Vol.  (3): 749-754 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 307KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
755
Dynamic Genetic Effects on Depression over Development
Despite the fast accumulating evidence for genetic underpinnings of depression, most of these studies taken a static perspective, whereas few studies have examined the dynamic change of genetic effects over development. Moreover, emerging evidences suggest that the genetic effects of depression vary with age. The present study aimed to review the evidence of changing genetic effects on depression over development, and further explored the potential factors which play significant role in dynamically changing system. Both quantitative genetics and molecular genetics studies suggest that the genetic effects of depression vary with age. On the one hand, the heritability of depression changes over development. More specifically, the majority of studies indicated that the heritability of depression increased from childhood to adolescence. To our knowledge, there are only two studies have examined the changes of heritability from youths to adults; however, mixed findings were obtained. It is possible that these studies ignored distinguishing adolescence into different stage. The heritability of depression increased from early adolescence to middle adolescence but decreased thereafter. Similarity, molecular genetics research indicated that the main effects of genes and the gene by environment interactions exhibited age-related changes. The bulk of prior research suggests that early adolescence is a critical stage of development for observing potential changes in genetic effect. However, the change of heritability or genotype is not enough to generalize dynamic genetic effects. Whether genetic factor contribute to change or to stability in depression across time is the other critical question. Multivariate genetic model indicated that stable genetic influences operational at the first time point accounted partly for continuity of depression. More importantly, new emerging genetic effects appear at early or middle adolescence that coincides with increases in depressive symptoms. New genetic influences may explain age-related increases in depression across development. Furthermore, molecular genetics research found that genetic factors influenced the developmental trajectories, including normative and heterogeneous developmental trajectories. We reviewed the potential mechanism that account for dynamic genetic effect. It is possible that hormone and neurobiological protein changes in different critical maturational periods may alter gene expression or function related to depression, and thereby contributed to the change of genetic effect. Research has demonstrated that changes in environment may alter epigenetic modifications, and as a result, different phenotypes can be generated from a single genotype through the lifespan. Moreover, cascade models may explain the pathways by which genetic effects changes over time to shape development through processes of multilevel dynamics. Previous studies have highlighted the value in taking a dynamic perspective in investigating genetic effects on depression; future research should employ longitudinal design spanning a wide age range to reveal the developmental changes of the effect of genetic variants and their interactions with environment on depression. Exploring underlying mechanism and gender differences in genetic changes by including brain function, hormone, neurobiological protein and epigenetic indexes remain an important direction for future research.
2018 Vol.  (3): 755-760 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 338KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
761
Subject Claims and Review of Cultural Neuroscience on Cultural Perspective
The Application of brain cognitive technology (Such as fMRI, ERP, PET, EEG and MEG, etc.) ,neuroscience and cultural psychology advocate in cultural neuroscience reveal the cross-cultural field of human psychology and behavior of the brain mechanism, and the brain Interacting with cultural elements and then restricting human behavior patterns. It implements the interaction and dialogue between the broadest cultural background and the microscopic brain network. The existing brain imaging studies have shown that the specific socio-cultural background does have a certain impact on the individual's cognitive processes, cognitive patterns and brain. Therefore, the cultural neuroscience advocates that the human brain has the plasticity, and the cultural background changes the neural network. At the same time, the ever-changing brain network system will change and influence the culture, which forms the mechanism of social cognition-culture-brain interaction, which directly affects and constrains individual behavior. Cultural neuroscience integrates the grand cultural background and the study of the interaction of micro-brain activity, which reflects the profound changes in psychology of the pursuit of scientific research paradigm, but it also reflects its shortcomings in the cultural level, that is, the humanistic spirit and cultural connotation are declining for the name of "culture", which mainly reflected in the following aspects: first, the psychological method of instrumentalism, the premise of the psychology becoming a natural science is the use of empirical methods, which formed the empirical method of priority and central status, leading to psychological research methods of instrumentalism. Cultural neuroscience as a science, and inevitably the criticism of the empirical methodology is not complete, and it is still the method center of the default; Second, the cultural semantic misreading. cultural connotation is not understood and applied completely in cognitive neuroscience, at the same time, leading to another problem of the cultural-neuroscience to face is the departure of cultural context, that is, lack of ecological; Third, the rational spirit of publicity. cultural – neuroscience’s research paradigm reflects the research program strictly controlling, the standardized management of the experimental process, the generalization of the results of the study, the construction of human psychological law of extreme self-confidence, which is the ultimate spirit of human reason publicity; Fourth, the loss of human subjectivity, that is, in the cultural neuroscience research the risk of reversionism in the paradigm and the possibility of the loss of subjectivity are not only the subjective image of "human", but eventually it can slide to the theory of reduction. In addition, there is an important issue in cultural-neuroscience that is still in dispute, which is the ethical problem of brain imaging method to be solved. However, it is undeniable that cultural-neuroscience is a new field and direction in the integration of neuroscience and cultural psychology. This means that cultural-neuroscience will have more problems to face and solve. It is foreseeable that, with the rise of the second generation of cognitive science emphasizing situational, embodied and dynamic, cultural neuroscience will make possible corrections to the relationship between body and mind, and further rationalize the relationship of the brain, body and cultural, to achieve a innovation breakthrough of the psychology paradigm.
2018 Vol.  (3): 761-767 [Abstract] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 302KB] ( [an error occurred while processing this directive] )
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