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Psychological Science
 
2019 Vol. Issue.2
Published 2019-03-20

258 Anticipatory Anxiety modulates the processing of facial expressions
The human brain responds before the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The uncertainty of occurrence and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. How does the anticipatory anxiety induced by the intensity of an uncertain aversive event influence the processing of social stimuli such as other’s facial expressions? The present study used a revised version of the “monetary wheel of fortune” game to induce different levels of anticipatory anxiety. Two kinds of bets are set: 1 and 100, “1” means that the participants would win/lose 1 points (equivalent to 0.1 Yuan); “100” means that the participants would win/lose 100 points (equivalent to 10 Yuan). After the bet was chosen and before the outcome appeared, the participants were presented with pictures of facial expressions (including three kinds: happy, neutral and fearful). Participants were instructed to judge the valence of the expression by pressing buttons. The EEGs during the participants observing different facial expression under different levels of anticipatory anxiety were recorded and compared. Since this is a novel paradigm, we run a validation test with 20 participants who did not participate in the EEG studies. They were instructed to rate the anxiety level according to their current feelings after the fortune is done (1 or 100 was chosen) on a 9 point scale (from 1: not anxious at all to 9: extremely anxious). Results of the validation test indicated that 100 elicited a significantly higher level of anxiety than 1. Therefore, this novel paradigm could elicit a different level of anticipatory anxiety as we expected. On the behavioral level, we found that the participants showed a significant negative bias in which they were tending to under-rate the pleasantness of neutral face under the high anticipatory anxiety conditions. On the ERP level, a significant interaction of anticipatory anxiety and facial expressions was observed on the N170 component. Both happy and fearful face induced significantly greater N170 than neutral face induced N170 only in high anticipatory anxiety conditions but not in low anticipatory anxiety conditions. Crucially, we found that the fearful-face-induced N170 amplitude was significantly greater under high anticipatory anxiety condition than under low anticipatory anxiety condition, while the difference of N170 induced by happy and neutral faces between the two anticipatory anxiety levels was insignificant. In addition, we also found that that the modulation effect of anticipatory anxiety on the fearful-face-induced N170 is related to the personality trait scores of neuroticism and state-trait anxiety. Combined with behavioral and ERP findings, these results show that the level of anticipatory anxiety have an impact on the processing of facial expressions, and the processing of different expressions is affected by the anticipatory anxiety differently. Previous studies have shown that patients with various anxiety disorders, including phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia, may exhibit abnormal anticipatory anxiety. The present study focusing on the healthy population will help deepen our understanding of the mechanism of abnormality in the disease population.
2019 Vol.  (2): 258-264 [Abstract] ( 5 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1105KB] ( 159 )
265 The influence of different finger configurations on numerical representation
Numerous studies have shown that finger counting habits have effect on number processing performance. Two types of finger configurations were tested: canonical and non-canonical configurations. Meanwhile encoding mode are also different. Canonical configurations should activate a place coding representation, which automatically activate number semantics. Whereas non-canonical configurations belong to summation coding, which activates number perceptual. Under the Chinese culture context, the finger numeral representation has its special connotation, especially the representations of larger numbers. In order to clarify the peculiar effect that the finger numeral configurations on the number recognition in Chinese culture context, the present study was conducted. It was hypothesized that canonical configurations would be processed as symbolic stimuli, whereas non-canonical ones would be processed as non-symbolic stimuli. Two experiments were conducted in the present study. The Experiment 1 adopted the distance priming paradigm, and examined the influence of different finger numeral configurations of single hand on the small number(1~5) of cognitive processing; Experiment 2 used Chinese finger numerical representations as canonical configurations, continuing to exam that different combinations of both hands impact the large number(5~9) of cognitive processing. The results showed that: The two types of finger configurations clearly activate two types of magnitude representations in Exp.1. For canonical configurations, we found a strong main distance effect for both the left and right sides of the regression line. This pattern suggests the activation of a place coding representation, and it appears semantic feature. For non-canonical configurations, we found a distance effect only for the right side of the regression line when targets were larger than primes, but a flat distance effect for the left side in which targets were all equally activated. This pattern suggests the activation of a summation coding representation, and it appears perceptual feature. It was observed that the two types of finger configurations clearly activate the same of magnitude representations in experiment 2, which means that the place coding representation was adopted under two different conditions, finger numerical representation appears semantic feature. The results above supports the embodied numerosity theory and computational model. In conclusion, these results indicates that canonical numerical finger configurations appears semantic feature and non-canonical numerical finger configurations transform perceptual to semantic feature by embodied numerosity theory and computational model under Chinese cultural context.
2019 Vol.  (2): 265-272 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 883KB] ( 42 )
273 Neural Correlates of /n/-/l/ Phonemic Merger: An MMN Study
Native language experience shapes how people perceive the world at an early age. Phonemic merger is a common phenomenon of language variation in which two phonemes cannot be distinguished in perception and pronunciation. Phonemic merger could indicate a deficit of perceptual sensitivity to non-native phonemic contrasts. For example, merged speakers from southwest China are always not able to distinguish the /n/-/l/ contrast that acoustically mixed in their dialects, whereas people from the north can distinguish them without an effort. A previous study (Conrey et al., 2005) showed that the perception of /I/-/E/ in English differ between merged speakers and unmerged speakers in the LPC response which attributed to the conscious phonological decision processes. However, it has been unclear that whether and how the language experiences of phonemic merger impact merged speakers’ phoneme perception in early auditory processing. Here, we adapted a passive oddball paradigm to examine if the merged experience impact speech recognition and explore the neural correlates of /n/-/l/ Chinese phonemic merger at the early stage of auditory processing, as indexed by the mismatch negativity (MMN). In the ERP experiment, the subjects sat in an acoustically shielded cabin. Acoustic stimuli /niú/ and /liú/ were delivered binaurally via headphones at an intensity of 60 dB SPL. We instructed the subjects ignore the auditory and concentrate on a silent movie. Simultaneously, we recorded the subjects’ brain waves. After EEG recording, all of the subjects participated in an /n/-/l/ discrimination test, in order to measure their capacity of distinguish /n/ from /l/. According to the accuracy of the behavioral test and assessment for dialectal experience, 22 listeners were divided into two groups, merged speakers (4 males, 7 females, age range, 18-25 years) and unmerged speakers (4 males, 7 females, age range, 18-22 years). Then, we compared the ERPs and behavioral performance for the discrimination of /n/-/l/ contrast between merged speakers and unmerged speakers. The results showed that the behavioral responses were slower (p = .003) and more error-prone (p < .001) in the merged speakers than in the unmerged speakers. These behavioral results indicate merged speakers’ deficit of discrimination of /n/-/l/ contrast. Our ERP results revealed that the deviant syllable /liú/ evoked a typical MMN only in unmerged speakers with a maximum amplitude peaked around 182 ms after the onset of the critical phoneme. The absence of MMN suggested that the /n/-/l/ merged speakers had lost the ability to distinguish the phonemes /n/ and /l/ in early auditory processing. Although failed to observe the MMN component in merged speakers on the MMN time window, we obtained a late discriminatory negativity (LDN) in 480~540 ms. For the precise function of LDN, more further studies are needed. The significant differences of ERP responses between two groups indicated that the merged speakers are deficient in recognizing the contrast between /n/-/l/ at least in the acoustic perceptual processing. In conclusion, our results indicate that long-term experience of phonemic merger affects merged speakers’ speech perception, and merged speakers lost the automatic discrimination of merged contrast at an early stage of auditory processing.
2019 Vol.  (2): 273-279 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 655KB] ( 31 )
280 The Underlying Mechanism of Aftereffects of Prospective Memory: Verifying the Viewpoints of Spontaneous Extraction and Inhibition
Abstract Prospective memory represents the ability of remembering to carry out an intended action in the future. In a typical prospective memory experiment, participants are required to engage in two tasks: the ongoing task and prospective task. According to the nature of the prospective memory cues, there are two types of prospective memory: time-based and event-based prospective memory. There are two kinds of processes that can support prospective memory: preparatory attentional processes and memory processes theory (PAM) and multiple processes theory. The PAM assumes that prospective memory retrieval requires resource-demanding preparatory attentional processes, whereas the multiple process theory assumes that retrieval can also occur spontaneously. Aftereffects of prospective memory is a phenomenon that when prospective memory is finished or canceled, people still execute the prospective memory tasks repeatedly. The aftereffects of prospective memory can affect the quality of our lives. Lots of studies shows that aftereffect of prospective memory does exist in various conditions, but the processing mechanism of the aftereffect is controversial. The viewpoint of spontaneous extraction assumes that when prospective memory is completed, people are still able to spontaneously extract the original prospective memory task. The view of inhibitory states that when the cognitive resources used to suppress the original prospective memory are insufficient, people will make commission errors. The view of monitoring hold that people will continue to monitor the appearance of cues of prospective memory after their completion of tasks. Therefore, they are easy to make mistake when meeting the original clues. This study is to explore that which point is more reasonable. Experiment 1 adopted a single factor design. A total of 133 college students (26 baseline condition, 24 nonsalient/low frequency, 29 salient/low frequency, 27 nonsalient/high frequency, 27 salient/high frequency) participated the experiment. Experiment 2 adopted 2(cue saliency:nonsalient、salient)×2(cognitive loading:high、low) design. A total of 107 college students (24 nonsalient/low loading, 29 salient/low loading, 26 nonsalient/high loading, 28 salient/high loading) participated the experiment. Participants were asked to respond by pressing the key (F or J),but when meeting the prospective memory cues they should press the specified key (SPACE). During the course of experiments, Ongoing task and PM task were done simultaneously by participants. Participants’ behavioral data was recorded by computer automatically. The results showed that participants would make more commission errors in cue salient condition. Besides, in the four experimental conditions (nonsalient/low frequency, salient/low frequency, nonsalient/high frequency, salient/high frequency) the speed of ongoing tasks was slower than baseline condition after completion of prospective memory. In addition, no matter whether the clue was significant or not, participants would make more commission errors in high cognitive loading. Beyond these points, participants made the slowest reaction to the original prospective memory cues. The results shows that the appearance of aftereffect of prospective memory will occupy additional cognitive resources. What’s more, the cognitive resources are used to restrain primary prospective memory tasks. The process of inhibition is through the whole process of the experiment.
2019 Vol.  (2): 280-286 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 520KB] ( 31 )
287 The Development and Forgetting Characteristics of Knowledge Acquired in Implicit Sequence Learning
The development of knowledge acquired in implicit learning is an important feature of implicit learning. Implicit sequence learning , one of the important paradigms of implicit learning, consists of general motor skill learning and sequence-specific learning. This study mainly focused on sequence-specific learning. The goal of this study was to investigate the development and forgetting characteristics of knowledge acquired in implicit sequence learning through sequence reaction time paradigm. Experiment 1 adopted one-factor completely random design to investigate the development of knowledge acquired in implicit sequence learning. The learning progress ,including six levels, 2 block , 4 block , 6 block , 8 block , 10 block , 12 block , was the independent variable. The dependent variable were conscious knowledge and unconscious knowledge, as well as the average response time and accuracy rate of each block. The result showed that only after BLK8 did the subject’s accuracy rate begin to be significantly higher than guess level(50%) via a one-sample t-test used for each level of the learning process, t(14)=2.71,p<0.05,Cohen's d=0.694.What’s more , unconscious knowledge acquired in implicit sequence learning was more than conscious knowledge . Consciousness knowledge was increased gradually while unconscious knowledge was decreased in the whole learning process. This showed that implicit learning has time efficacy. Experiment 2 adopted one-factor completely random design to investigate the forgetting characteristics of knowledge acquired in implicit sequence learning. The retention interval , including nine levels,0h, 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h, 1day, 2days, 7days, was the independent variable. The independent variable was the same as experiment 1.The result showed that by means of taking the accuracy as the dependent variable and performing one-way analysis of variance ,the main effect of retention interval was significant, F(8,80)=4.45, p<0.001. Further one-sample t-test analysis found the judgment accuracy rate was significantly higher than guessing level(50%) while the retention interval was from 0 to 8 hours, respectively, t(12) = 2.84,p = .015;t(10)=2.76,p= .020;t(10) = 2.25, p=.049;t(8) = 2.91, p= .020;t(11)=3.68,p= .004;t(8)=2.77,p= .024;However, the accuracy rate decreased to guessing level at the interval of 24h, t(7)=1.60, p>0.05. Moreover, the accuracy rate was even lower than guessing level at the interval of either 48 hours or 7 days, t(7)= -2.59,p= .036,t(7)= -2.20,p>0.05. This experiment also showed that the main effect of retention interval of conscious knowledge acquired in implicit sequence learning reached a marginal significant, F(8,80)=1.81,p= .08. That conscious knowledge would be decreased after at the interval of 8h implied conscious knowledge could appear to be forgotten.Contrary to the above, the main effect of retention interval for unconscious knowledge acquired in implicit sequence learning was not significant, F(8,80)=1.30,p>0.05,it meant that unconscious knowledge was anti-forgetting.
2019 Vol.  (2): 287-292 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 462KB] ( 21 )
293 The Study of the Rhythmic Perception on Chinese Mandarin
Two perceptual grouping principles, iambic/trochaic law (ITL), have been found over a century ago by Bolton (1984) and Woodrow (1909). Hayes (1995) proposed this law describes humans’ tendency to form trochaic groups over sequences varying in intensity (i.e., the loudest sounds mark group beginning), and iambic groups over sequences varying in duration (i.e., the longest sounds mark group ending). This perceptual grouping has traditionally been thought to be governed by innate, universal principles. However, recent work has found that language or music background may modulate the use of ITL, meaning that these perceptual grouping preferences may instead be a consequence of language exposure. Researches has investigated how adults and infants speaking Italian, Turkish, Japanese, English or Spanish group sequences of syllables, tones or musical instrument sounds. Compared with these languages, Mandarin has its own unique features, such as rhyme, tone and so on. In this study, we explore Mandarin speakers' perceptual grouping preference of non-linguistic sounds by using a grouping task. Each sound sequence was constituted with basic and altering sound in turn, which would last 10s. To assure that the sequences were fully ambiguous in terms of an iambic or a trochaic organization, the beginning and the end of each intensity and duration sequence faded in and out 1.5s. In addition, each sequence was played forward (i.e. starting with basic sound) or backward (i.e. starting with the altering sound). In the intensity condition, changing tone was built with either 60dB or 65dB. In the duration condition, changing tone was built with either 250ms-long or 200ms-long sine wave. The acoustics parameters of base tone were set 150ms in duration, 55dB in intensity and 256Hz in F0 successively. In addition, six filler sequence were also inserted with each condition. Hence in each condition, participants would finish 30 trails. Twenty-nine participants completed the intensity condition, and twenty-six participants finished the duration condition. After each sound, they were asked to indicate whether they have heard a trochaic (i.e., strong-weak) or an iambic (i.e., weak-strong) rhythmic pattern. In the intensity condition, participants showed a soft trochaic grouping bias (M = 0.549, p = 0.091,d = 0.33), as predicted by the ITL. In the duration condition, participants exhibited a trochaic preference (M = 0.566, p = 0.019,d = 0.52), which is different from ITL. These experiments provide new evidence for the proposal that intensity information draws upon a universal mechanism in ITL across languages, yet ITL in duration is shaped by language experience. Especially, light tone may be one of the factors for Mandarin native speakers. Further studies should investigate the effects of Mandarin tone or even dialectal tone on the perception of rhythmic grouping.
2019 Vol.  (2): 293-298 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 423KB] ( 33 )
299 From Human Empathy To Artificial Empathy
zhiqiang yan Jin-Long SU Yanjie SU
As robots are increasingly important in human’s life, people begin to pay attention to their other potentials besides intelligence, such as empathy, which plays an important role in human sociality. The prerequisite for robots to become our partner is to share and understand the human’s emotions and to react properly. In fact, current research on empathy mostly focuses on traditional interpersonal interaction, and little attention has been given to human-robot interaction. This paper aims to review related research on psychology and human-robot interaction under the background of developing artificial intelligence. Russian Doll Model and Dual-Process Model have been two most influential theoretical models of empathy. Russian Doll Model considers empathy as a construct comprising of three layers: (1) motor mimicry and emotional contagion; (2) empathetic concern and consolation; (3) perspective-taking and targeted helping. Dual-Process Model stems from relevant findings in cognitive neuroscience, and proposes that empathy work via two routes: bottom-up processing and top-down processing. Both models as well as empirical studies drawing from them suggest a possibility to program artificial empathy analogous to human empathy. Focusing on the topic of artificial empathy and based on classic models, the current study reviewed the latest research in artificial intelligence and systematically discussed existing theoretical models and empirical studies about artificial empathy. First, we did a bibliometric analysis to draw an overall picture of artificial empathy studies. By analyzing 175 articles, we found that studies in the field of artificial empathy were expanding concentrated on three topics: (1) interface and form of human-robot interaction; (2) computerized simulation of empathy; (3) artificial intelligence. Second, we introduced two computerized models of artificial empathy. As mentioned above, these two models were derived from the traditional empathy models and assumed that robots needed a main system of empathy and another system for learning. Recently, preliminary application of research in artificial empathy has been successful in board game industry and medical treatment. In order to promote further research, we argue that it is important to draw on progress in four areas below: (1) Due to the importance of self-learning, insights from developmental studies would contribute to building theoretical models and developing scales with satisfactory psychometric properties in the field of artificial empathy; (2) According to the results of bibliometric analysis, interdisciplinary cooperation would help to delve deep into this field; (3) ethical issues should not be neglected as studies on artificial empathy proceed, since there is still so much work to do on these issues and government participation is indispensible; (4) Last but not least, consciousness is a hot topic in the field of artificial intelligence. It is possible that authentic empathy cooccurs with consciousness, and if which is exactly the case we would have to consider the role of consciousness in developing artificial empathy. In sum, based on the present research achievement and theory models, we propose that the actualization of artificial empathy will be the key for robots to open the door towards the real human-like and to better serve humans in the future.
2019 Vol.  (2): 299-306 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1186KB] ( 56 )
307 The Effect of Transfer Types on Labor’s Role in Ownership Judgments
Labor plays an important role in guiding people’s ownership judgments. In daily life, labor often affects human’s ownership judgments along with some other principles, such as first possession. Previous studies have investigated how young children and adults judged ownership when there were conflicting cues between labor and first possession (Kanngiesser, Gjersoe, & Hood, 2010; Kanngiesser & Hood, 2014b; Hook, 1993). Some research found preschool children were more likely to assign ownership to the laborer than adults (Kanngiesser et al., 2010), while adults were inclined to give priority to the first possessor (Hook, 1993). However, these studies neglected the possible effect of transfer types on labor’s role in ownership judgments. In addition, most of previous studies focused on western samples, but rare study investigated Chinese children and adults’ ownership judgments based on labor rule. This study selected Chinese children aged 3- to 5-year-old and adults as subjects and examined their ownership judgments when some objects were transferred in the taking or borrowing ways and modified by a second person. The results showed there were a significant main effect of transfer type, F(1,116) = 19.54, p = .000, ηp2 = 0.14, and a significant main effect of age, F(3,116) = 11.07,p = .000, ηp2 = .22. Moreover, the interaction between transfer type and age were significant. F(3,116) =3.05,p = .031,ηp2 = .07. There were no significant differences in the ownership judgments for 3-year-olds between the two transfer conditions. Three-year-olds did not support either the original possessor or the laborer as the owner of newly created objects.In contrast, 4 to 5 years old and adults were less inclined to judge the laborer was the owner of newly created objects in the borrowing condition compared to the taking condition. Children aged 4 to 5 years of age tended to think that the laborer was the owner of newly created objects in the taking condition, while adults tended to support the original possessor in both transfer conditions. This research indicated that transfer types could affect human’s ownership judgments based on labor rule, and from 4 years old, children have been aware of this. Unlike adults who consistently support the first possessor as owner in both transfer conditions, preschoolers never selected the first possessor as owner, even in the borrowing condition. This suggests young children’s representation of ownership cues may be different from that of adults. It’s easier for young children to focus on the changes of objects’ appearances (which is correlated with the cue of labor) than the time sequence (which is correlated with the cue of first possession). We did not find 3-year-olds support any party in both transfer conditionswhich. This is to some extent consistent with previous cross-cultural studies (Kanngiesser, Itakura, & Hood, 2014; Kanngiesser et al., 2015). The results were discussed with different patterns of early education between Eastern and Western cultures.
2019 Vol.  (2): 307-312 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 422KB] ( 68 )
313 Neurophysiological Correlations of Processing Socially and Non-socially Pleasant Stimuli between Children and Adults
Demands for social interaction are higher in late childhood as individuals experience increase independence. Age-related differences in the processing of social and non-sociallypleasant emotional stimuli may imply the process of individual socialization. For example, children may regulate, express, and even experience emotions differently in different stages of development. It reflects the priority of affective processing by turning from the self-oriented rewards to the complex social and interpersonal interactions. It is essential to individuals’ psychological functioning and reflects the tendency to emotionally response to stimuli combined with the ability to modify that response. Investigating age differences in the physiological components of emotional processing (e.g., scalp-recorded event related potentials, ERPs) has important significance in terms of understanding the emotional development. Examining age-related differences in the biomarkers for emotional processing has the potential to provide an important supplement to behavioral measures. In this study, we examined age-related differences in the event-related brain potential (ERP) modulations during processing of socially and non-sociallypleasant stimuli. EEG was recorded from 19(M=20.7) adults and 17 children(M=10.12) by using the Picture Perception Paradigm. As the early components, the P2 was the prominent frontal component occurring just prior N2 around 200ms. It seems to express arousal and emotive reaction to emotional stimulus. As another important early component relevant to emotional processing, the N2 was the largest negative deflection with a medial-frontocentral topography between 200–300ms following stimulus onset. The N2 may be sensitive to the processing of emotional information. As a late component, late positive potential (LPP) is a typically sensitive biomarker of emotional processing. It reflects facilitated attention to emotional stimuli and the recruitment of prefrontal cortical resources associated with effective cognitive control. As the typical biomarkers of emotional processing, age-related differences in the early ERP components (e.g., P2 and N2) and later ERP components (e.g., LPP) were examined. Results showed that (1) as the index of the visual perception in the early processing stage, the P2 was larger for socially pleasant pictures than neutral pictures. It was large for adults than children. (2) As an index of the facilitated processing of motivationally salient stimuli, N2 was larger for children than adults.N2 was larger for socially pleasant pictures than non-socially pleasant pictures among adults. However, there was no significant difference among children.(3) As the index of emotion regulation in the late processing stage, the LPP was larger for children than adults in all time windows. In the later time window, the LPP was smaller for social than nonsocial pictures among children but had no significant difference among adults. Age-related differences in P2 and N2 in the present study again demonstrated that developmental difference is deep-rooted in the early stage of perceptual and attentional processing. As same as the findings of early ERP components, the larger LPP among children suggests that children might have higher attentioanl processing and reactivity to emotional stimulus and recruited more cortical resources during later stage of emotional processing. These results indicated that socially pleasant emotions properly had a higher priority in affective processing during development. From late childhood to early adulthood, individuals undergo age dependent changes in processing different pleasant stimuli.
2019 Vol.  (2): 313-321 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1140KB] ( 17 )
322 Semantic radical processing during Chinese phonogram recognition among Two, Third and Fifth Grade children
Although studies with priming paradigm have confirmed the semantic activation of semantic radicals during the processing of Chinese phonograms in adult readers, little research has explored the processing of the semantic radical when children are involved. Most prior research in children has focused on the roles of morphological structure and positional information in Chinese compound word recognition. But note that, phonograms are the most frequently words that children learned during the whole elementary school. Besides, to achieve the meaning of a character but not to know the morphological structure and positions is the necessary process for a child learning to read. Thus, the main purpose of the current study is to investigate processing of phonograms in the developing readers. A 3 (Grade: third vs. fifth vs. adult) × 2 (Target type: transparent vs. opaque) × 2 (Prime type: form related vs. form unrelated) three factors mixed experimental design was adopted. Four conditions were formed by crossing target type and prime type. When transparent phonograms were targets, opaque phonograms served as the form-related primes; similarly, for opaque targets, transparent phonograms served as the form related primes. As refer to the two form unrelated conditions, the unrelated words served as the primes of opaque phonograms or transparent ones. Therefore, there are three types of critical stimuli: transparent, opaque and unrelated control characters. The mean character frequency, stroke number, phonogram regularity and character familiarity are balanced across these three types of characters. Besides, information constrained by phonetic radicals (i.e. radical combinability or the character frequency when it was used as a simple character) could also be kept the same across the three conditions. Eprime1.1 software was used to make programs. Each trial began with a fixation cross in the central of screen for 500ms, which was replaced by the prime stimuli (in KaiTi font) for 200 ms. The target (in SongTi font) appeared immediately after the prime and stayed on the screen until participants responded, or for 2000 ms when no responses were made. The participants were required to judge whether the targets presented on the screen were real characters by pressing the corresponding keys as quickly and accurately as possible. Firstly, grade 5 children showed faster reaction time and more accurate responses than grade 3 children on the lexical decision task, who were then better than grade 2 students. Besides, the main effect of prime relatedness was significant, with form related condition showing the slower reaction time. Significant interaction between grade, prime type and target type were also found for both reaction time and accuracy. Further analysis revealed significant interaction between prime type and target type among 3 and 5 graders, the inhibition effect of semantic radicals was greater when the target was opaque characters. By contrast, no such effects were found when Chinese 2 graders were taken into account. In conclusion, semantic information of semantic radicals can play an important role in Chinese word recognition among developing readers. However, it would associate with a child’s developing level of reading comprehension. Grade 3 and 5 readers could use the semantic meaning of semantic radicals to affect word reading, while grade 2 students didn’t show this ability. The present results provide the evidence for Taft’s model, in which researchers argued the semantic radical was presented independently in one’s mental representation.
2019 Vol.  (2): 322-328 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 686KB] ( 42 )
329 Aging Effect in Comparative Search task
jie wu
A large number of human actives depend greatly on visual–spatial processing in mental rotation and visual search specifically. The contribution of visual–spatial processing abilities to performance in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology is so important that it even controls other relevant skills, such as memory and mathematical reasoning. Importantly, visual–spatial skills are also malleable which respond effectively to learning interventions and life experiences. In order to reliably identify age-group differences on characteristic of eye movements and priority of feature processing in visual processing, we employed a more complex comparative visual search task. Whereas the general visual search task requires participants to maintain a representation of a single target, comparative visual search task requires participants to keep two sets of items in mind at the same time. By giving abundant information about visual behavior during a significant class of cognitive conditions, comparative visual research task provided more possibilities to formulate and test new visual-spatial processing. In the present study, experimental materials consisted of 72 trials, two halves of which (24, 30, or 36 items per half) contained visual primitives of various colors (blue, green, red) and shapes (triangles, circles, squares). Two targets next to fixation were presented; the targets on one-half of the trials were the same, and on the other half of the trials, the targets differed by shape, color, or shape and color. We conducted a 2 (age: old adult, young adult) × 3 (item: 12, 15,18) × 3 (target: shape, color, shape and color) experimental design. An EyeLink 2000 eye tracker was used to ensure accurate fixation of the designated fixation location prior to each stimulus presentation and to record the location and duration of fixations. Participants performed a conjunctive search to ascertain whether the two halves were identical both quickly and accurately, and they provided no instruction regarding the visual–spatial processing strategy they were to use. The results showed that the comparative search task produced age-group decrements in eye movement measures, including longer total fixation time, more fixation counts, longer average saccade amplitude and fixation time on target stimulus for the older adults when the display size (12, 15, or 18 items per half) increases. These influences of fixation on eye movements showed quite closely with the aging effects observed in standard visual search task, which supported older adults are more likely to experience a larger decline in retinal acuity than young adults in later life. Therefore, older adults required more time than younger adults to detect, search, memory and recognize visual targets. However, Response times were shorter for redundant trials than for color-only and shape-only trials for both old and young participants. Therefore, two groups of participants had similar priority of number of dimension and characteristic of feature attribute. Given the extant evidence of strengths for holistic visual processing in older adults, the results which showed cognitive aging for older adults and similar priority of feature attribute to young adults are significant because they suggest such strengths may be task dependent.
2019 Vol.  (2): 329-334 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 563KB] ( 55 )
335 The relationship between child psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation: moderated mediation model
Han ZHOU Liu qinxue ZHANG WEI
A massive literature documents the association between psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation. However, the underlying mechanism of suicidal ideations remain unknown. Based on the strain theory of suicide, coping style is crucial in causing suicidal ideation. Moreover, previous researches and the attachment theory suggest potential mediating role of coping style in the relationship between child psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation. Meanwhile, according to the interpersonal theory of suicide, friendship quality could be the protecting factor for suicidal ideation. From the perspective of ecological systems theory, friendship quality may interact with child psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation; and in line with the organism-environment interaction model, friendship quality may interact with coping style. To sum up, this study constructed a moderated mediation model to examine whether coping style mediated the relation between child psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation, and whether friendship quality moderated this indirect mediating process as well as direct process. A total of 988 junior high school students aged 9-14 years old (543 boys and 445 girls) from 8 cities participated in this investigation. After given informed consents, they completed Child Psychological Abuse and Neglect Scale, Chinese Version of Positive and Negative Suicidal Ideation Inventory, Copying Style Scale for Middle School Students and Chinese Version of Friendship Quality Inventory. First, common method biases were examined. Then correlation analysis were conducted to acquire the overall relationships between variables among the hypothesized model. Finally, the moderated mediation effects were tested by the PROCESS macro for SPSS. The correlation analysis showed that: child psychological abuse and neglect was positively correlated with suicidal ideation, emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with child psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation, while problem-focused coping was negatively correlated with child psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation. The testing for moderated mediation model indicated that: after controlling for gender and single child, (1) child psychological abuse and neglect significantly contributed to suicidal ideation; (2) coping style played a mediating role in the relationship between child psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation; (3) friendship quality moderated the direct path from child psychological abuse and neglect to suicidal ideation, with this indirect effect being much stronger for adolescents with lower friendship quality; (4) friendship quality also moderated the mediated path through emotion-focused coping, with the relationship being stronger for adolescents with higher friendship quality. Thus, both mediating and moderating effects exist in the association between child psychological abuse and neglect and suicidal ideation. The present study revealed how and when child psychological abuse and neglect affects suicidal ideation. These findings may contribute to the precaution and prevention of teenager suicide. First, it is important to protect children from the harm of psychological abuse and neglect. Second, it is also helpful to decrease teenagers’ suicidal ideation risk by learning appropriate coping strategies and forming stronger interpersonal relationship.
2019 Vol.  (2): 335-342 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 795KB] ( 74 )
343
Wisdom involves the use of certain types of pragmatic reasoning to navigate important challenges in social life. Grossmann and his colleagues synthesized these facets of cognition in a framework of wise reasoning which is mainly based on the neo-Piagetian scholarship and Berlin Wisdom Paradigm. They include (1) intellectual humility or recognition of limits of own knowledge, (2) appreciation of perspectives broader than the issue at hand, (3) sensitivity to the possibility of change in social relations, and (4) compromise or integration of different opinions. Opposed to abstract reasoning, wise reasoning is influenced by life experiences and situated in a social context. There are some differences between abstract reasoning and wise reasoning. For example, unlike wise reasoning, abstract reasoning is insufficient for solving ill-defined socioemotional problems. Initially the measurement of wise reasoning includes fictitious conflicts and a structured interview. Here is the process: Firstly, participant finishes reading descriptions of some social conflicts. Then the interviewer asks participants to think out loud about the conflict, with their reflection guided via some questions (e.g., “What do you think will happen after the event you read about?” “Why do you think it will happen this way?” and “What do you think should be done?”) from the interviewer. Now, it can be measured by a Situated Wise Reasoning Scale (SWIS) which is based on event-construction. Firstly, the researcher asks participants to recall a recent interpersonal conflict and answer a number of questions about the situation and their subjective experience, which serves to increase accuracy of their recall. Then, they fill out self-report items measuring to what extent they used wise-reasoning strategies in dealing with the conflict. Some research results show that wise reasoning is related to some factors, such as age, cultural and situations. Firstly, it is a common lay belief that wisdom improves into old age. Specifically, older people are believed to show better competencies for reasoning about social conflicts. Research shows that relative to young and middle-aged people, older people make more use of wise-reasoning strategies. Secondly, People from different cultures vary in the ways they approach social conflicts, with Japanese being more motivated to maintain interpersonal harmony and avoid conflicts than Americans are. Such cultural differences influence persons’ wise reasoning about social conflict. Japanese showed greater use of wise-reasoning strategies than Americans did for the same age group. Thirdly, Wise reasoning varies from one situation to another, with self-focused contexts inhibiting wise thinking. Experiments can show ways to buffer thinking against bias in cases in which self-interests are unavoidable. Specifically, Researchers use various ways which can promote ego-decentering to improve the ability of participants’ wise reasoning about personally meaningful issues. The future research should focus on the following aspects: (a) to explore the concept of wise reasoning in natural wisdom and make the concept and structure of it enriched, (b) to develop the face-to-face measurement of wise reasoning, and (c) to explore the neural mechanisms of wise reasoning and compare it with the neural mechanisms of abstract reasoning, especially the deduction reasoning.
2019 Vol.  (2): 343-349 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 569KB] ( 73 )
350 Social self-efficacy and job burnout: A moderated mediation model
With the accelerating of work pace and the increasing of work stress, the problem of job burnout becomes increasingly common. Job burnout will not only reduce job performance, increase destructive behaviors and safety accidents, but also impair physical and psychological health of employees. To prevent or relieve a series of negative effects of job burnout, we need to explore the influencing factors of job burnout. According to the job requirements-resource model, the factors affecting job burnout can be divided into work requirements and work resources which include internal resources and external resources. The present research explored the influencing factors of job burnout from the perspective of individual characteristics related to internal resources. Social self-efficacy, as a representation of self-efficacy in the social field, is a special kind of internal psychological resources which can help employees relieve work stress. And, existing research shows that social self-efficacy affects individual's ability to apply interpersonal skills in social situations, and also the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal relationships, which may make employees obtain more social support to resist job burnout. The present research aims at investigating whether employees’ social self-efficacy can predict their level of job burnout, and understanding how interpersonal relationship play a role in the process. On the basis of the job requirements-resource model and leadership-member exchange theory, we constructed a moderated mediation model to examine whether leader-member exchange relationship mediated the relationship between social self-efficacy and job burnout, and whether leader-member exchange social comparison moderated this mediation effect. By convenient sampling and two-stage follow-up questionnaire survey, totally 399 full time employees from multiple companies were recruited into this study. They completed workplace social self-efficacy scale, leader-member exchange relationship scale, leader-member exchange social comparison scale, and Maslach burnout inventory-general survey. The results indicate that: (1) social self-efficacy has a significant negative predictive effect on job burnout; (2) leader-member exchange relationship has a significant mediating effect between social self-efficacy and job burnout;(3) leader-member exchange social comparison moderated the relationship between leader-member exchange relationship and job burnout (4) leader-member exchange social comparison is a significant moderator in the indirect effect that social self-efficacy predict job burnout by leader-member exchange. The findings of this research extend previous studies on the antecedents of job burnout by examining the relationship between social self-efficacy and job burnout. In addition, by exploring the mediating role of leader-member exchange relationship, this study advanced our understanding about the underlying mechanism that transmits the predictive effects of social self-efficacy to job burnout. This finding shows that social self-efficacy belonging to internal resources can be transformed into external work resources through social interaction to help employees meet job requirements and resist job burnout, which provides a new idea for the study of the influencing factors of job burnout. Our findings also point to some practical strategies that employees and organizations can use to resist job burnout. On the one hand, organizations can enhance employees' social self-efficacy and train their workplace social skills in some trainings to help them cope with job burnout. On the other hand, the organizations should cultivate the ability of its managers to establish good relationships with subordinates, and managers to improve communication, cooperation and trust with subordinates, so as to help employees avoid job burnout.
2019 Vol.  (2): 350-357 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 849KB] ( 84 )
358
2019 Vol.  (2): 358-364 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 848KB] ( 32 )
365 Effect of Perceived Overqualification on Unethical Pro-organizational Behavior: The Role of Psychological Entitlement and Humble Leadership
Perceived overqualification refers to an employment situation in which employees feel that they possess surplus qualifications relative to what a job requires. Due to changes in both the composition of the workforce and the economy, overqualification has become a common and important issue. Research on perceived overqualification has mainly focused on its negative consequences, such as low levels of organizational commitment and job satisfaction, counterproductive behaviors and organizational deviance behaviors. But there is no research on unethical pro-organizational behavior. Unethical behavior in the workplace has been widely reported in the last decades. Especially, an emerging stream of research has begun to systematically theorize and investigate unethical pro-organizational behavior. But the mechanism of perceived overqualification on unethical pro-organizational behavior is still unknown. In view of this, we proposed a moderated-mediation model to uncover the underlying mechanism and the boundary conditions of the relationship between perceived overqualification and unethical pro-organizational behavior. Drawing upon self-evaluation theory, we hypothesized that perceived overqualification is indirectly related to unethical pro-organizational behavior through psychological entitlement. We further proposed that humble leadership weakens this hypothesized relationship. To test those hypotheses, we collected a two-wave field data, one month apart each other, from a group of real estate and manufacturing employees of companies located in Beijing and Hebei province. Perceived overqualification and humble leadership in the first survey, and psychological entitlement, unethical pro-organizational behavior in the second survey. Three hundreds and ninty-two employees completed the two-wave survey. We applied regression analysis, bootstrap methods and multilevel structural equation modeling to analyze the data, and we adopted SPSS 21.0 and Mplus7.0 software to do the analysis. The result of data analysis showed that: (1) Perceived overqualification significantly and positively affected psychological entitlement and psychological entitlement significantly and positively affected unethical pro-organizational behavior; (2)Psychological entitlement partially mediated the relationship between perceived overqualification and unethical pro-organizational behavior; (3) Humble leadership negatively moderated the link of perceived overqualification- psychological entitlement, that is, the higher level of humble leadership, the weaker relationship between perceived overqualification and psychological entitlement; on the contrary, the relationship was stronger. Overall, in order to better understand perceived overqualification in unethical pro-organizational behavior, this study developed a moderated mediation model to examine the complementary relationship, but it was not verified by the present data. Our findings were among the first to demonstrate the relationship between perceived overqualification and unethical pro-organizational behavior, and explore the psychological mechanism and boundary conditions. Theoretical contributions in this study may be included several aspects: (a) By investigating the driving factors of unethical pro-organizational behavior in organizational, our research filled the research gap of unethical pro-organizational behavior in organization, but also expanded the direction of research on perceived overqualification; (b) By identifying the mediating role of psychological entitlement, our research uncovered the influencing path of perceived overqualification on unethical pro-organizational behavior; (c) By examining the moderating role of humble leadership, our research offered a more comprehensive view of under what conditions that employees with high perceived overqualification were more likely not to exhibit unethical pro-organizational behavior.
2019 Vol.  (2): 365-371 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 731KB] ( 49 )
372 Actor and Partner Effects of Aging Stereotypes on Death Anxiety in Older Couples
Due to function decline or loss in later life, older adults are experiencing more and more anxiety about death, which could damage their quality of life. From a social and cultural perspective, this study examined the role of aging stereotypes in death anxiety. Aging stereotypes refer to the general beliefs about older adults, including positive aging stereotypes and negative aging stereotypes. The stereotype embodiment theory proposes that the aging process is, in part, a social construct. Individuals assimilate the stereotypes in the surrounding culture into their self-concept, which in turn influences their functioning and health. This study thus expected that older adults’ positive aging stereotypes would be negatively associated with their death anxiety, whereas older adults’ negative aging stereotypes would be positively associated with their death anxiety. This study further examined the relationship between aging stereotypes and death anxiety within older couples. There are spousal interrelations in older couples in many domains, such as health, cognition, and well-being. According to the dyadic stress and coping paradigm, a husband and wife often function as a unit when facing the challenges of aging. For example, previous studies found that older adults’ attitudes toward aging had impacts not only on their own mental health, but on their partners’ mental health. This study expected that older adults’ aging stereotypes would influence their own (actor effects) and their spouse’s (partner effects) death anxiety. A total of 145 older couples (age range 55–88 years) from 10 communities in Chongqing, China, took part in this study. Participants completed self-report measurements using the Image of Aging Scale and the Death Anxiety Scale. We used the actor–partner interdependence model to examine the actor and partner effects of aging stereotypes on death anxiety within older couples. Age, education, income, and physical health were used as control variables in the data analysis. The results showed that the dyad had a significant congruence in aging stereotypes and death anxiety, respectively. Aging stereotypes had significant actor effects on death anxiety within the dyad. That is, older adults’ positive aging stereotypes were negatively associated with their own death anxiety, whereas older adults’ negative aging stereotypes were positively associated with their own death anxiety. A gender difference emerged for the partner effects of aging stereotypes on death anxiety. Specifically, husbands’ positive aging stereotypes showed negative effects on wives’ death anxiety, whereas the partner effects of wives’ positive aging stereotypes on husbands’ death anxiety were not significant. Wives’ negative aging stereotypes showed positive effects on husbands’ death anxiety, whereas, the partner effects of husbands’ negative aging stereotypes on wives’ death anxiety were not significant. The findings from this study indicate that the social construct of aging is important in reducing older adults’ death anxiety. Interventions to enhancing older adults’ positive beliefs and reducing their negative beliefs about aging would be beneficial to their quality of life. In addition, the gender differences of partner effects have implications in developing couple-based intervention programs to reduce the death anxiety of older adults.
2019 Vol.  (2): 372-378 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 640KB] ( 47 )
379 The Relationship Between Goal Contents and Subjective well-being Among Chinese College Students: A Moderated Mediation Model
Abstract:Subjective well-being is a hot topic in personality and social psychology. In recent years, researchers have paid more and more attention on the effects of individual struggle , main life goals, the content of goals, and other individual subjective initiatives on well-being. Self-determination theory divides human goals into intrinsic goals and extrinsic goals(Deci & Ryan, 2000). Intrinsic goals refer to the goals that reflect our innate growth tendency, including self acceptance, intimacy, physical fitness, etc. Extrinsic goals refer to the goals of gaining external rewards, including striving for wealth, power, status, etc. The theory holds that the pursuit of intrinsic goals leads to higher well-being, while the pursuit of extrinsic goals often leads to lower well-being and poor adaptability. This hypothesis has been supported by numerous studies in different countries (Lekes, Gingras, Philippe, Koestner , & Fang, 2010; Martos & Kopp, 2012; Nishimura & Suzuki, 2016; Romero, Gomez-Fraguela, & Villar, 2011)and using different methods(Hope, Milyavskaya, Holding , & Koestner, 2016;Lekes, Guilbault, Philippe, & Houle, 2014).However the mechanism between different goal contents and subjective well-being is still unclear . Self-determination theory proposes that we have three innate ,basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness .The reason why intrinsic goals favor well-being ,as the theory suggests, is that they directly satisfy these needs By contrast, extrinsic goal involve obtaining rewards and positive evaluation from others, and do not directly satisfy basic human needs. Therefore investing more in extrinsic goals may not contribute to well-being and may even have a negative effect. However, the empirical evidence on this hypothesis is rare. So the aim of this study is to test the association in Chinese background empirically. Also people with different levels of self-esteem may pursuit different goal contents and the association may be different among them. Specifically the present study constructed a moderated mediation model to investigate whether basic psychological needs mediated the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic goal pursuit and subjective well-being, and whether self-esteem moderated this mediation effect. By convenient sampling, totally 535 college students (182 boys and 353 girls) were recruited to participate in this study. They completed the Aspiration Index, the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Scale, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale,, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As in previous research (Sheldon & Krieger,2014; Kasser , 2002) , a ‘‘relative intrinsic versus extrinsic value orientation’’ (RIEVO) score was computed by subtracting extrinsic from intrinsic goal scores. The results indicated that: (1) RIEVO significantly positively predicted subjective well-being. (2) basic psychological needs played a partial mediating role between RIEVO and subjective well-being. (3) Self-esteem moderated the first path of the mediated effect of basic psychological needs,. To be more specific, the relationship between RIEVO and basic psychological needs remained significantly for college students with high self-esteem., but became insignificant for those with low self-esteem. Therefore, both mediating and moderating effects existed in the association between RIEVO and subjective well-being.
2019 Vol.  (2): 379-386 [Abstract] ( 4 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 688KB] ( 68 )
387 Associations between Shyness, Self-esteem and Internet Dependence in College Freshmen: A Cross-lagged Analysis
With the development of science and technology, the network popularity has rapidly mounted, college students have also became the main force of Internet use. The network brings college students much benefiting, but over reliance on the Internet also brings a lot of psychological problems to the college students, such as increasing shyness and lowering self-esteem. Shyness refers to a temperament, attitude or state of inhibition. It often feels inferior and can not express itself in public occasions, and shows an inappropriate response to external changes. Previous studies showed that shyness preferred to use network to build and develop their intimacy, and as the level of shyness increases, their dependence on the Internet was also higher. On the other hand, some researches suggest that the formation of reasonable self-esteem can reduce the possibility that individuals form Internet dependence. Self-esteem may serve as a protective mechanism, making individuals more willing to pursue the true meaning of life, so as to reduce the possibility of the formation of network dependence, and low self-esteem are eager to achieve seeking their own value in the virtual network, therefore more prone to behavior problems such as network dependence. In order to explore the mutual predictive relationship between shyness and Internet dependence, and self-esteem and Internet dependence in college freshmen, four kinds of theoretical models are proposed by the method of cross lag analysis. The models are compared by 2(df), TLI, CFI, RMSEA and the optimal model is determined. Test started from the first month after the military training and the participants were freshmen of two universities in Shandong Province. The total measurement time was three months; each time interval was one month. Each participant completed the The College Students' Shyness Scale, The Chinese version of Self Esteem Scale and The Chinese version of Internet Dependency Scale. After deleting invalid questionnaire, a total of 361 valid questionnaires were obtained. Finally, data analysis using SPSS17.0 and AMOS22.0, including repeated measurement of variance analysis, correlation analysis and path analysis of cross lag model. The results were as follows: (1) Shyness, self-esteem, and Internet dependence were stable cross time. (2) Pearson correlation analysis showed that, the correlation between shyness at T1、T2 and T3 was significant, so is self-esteem and Internet dependence. (3) At three time points, there was a positive correlation between shyness and Internet dependence, and a negative correlation between self-esteem and Internet dependence. (4) Cross lagged analysis show that, Internet dependent at T1 can positively predict their shyness at T2, while the level of shyness can further positively predict their Internet dependent at T3. Shyness plays a partial mediating role between the relationship of Internet dependent at T1 and T3. (5) The Internet dependence at T1 and T2 can negatively predict the self-esteem at T2 and T3 respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene in the freshmen as soon as possible, reducing their shyness, improving their self-esteem, and encouraging students to actively participate in various activities in the extracurricular time, enriching students' spare time to reduce the use of network.
2019 Vol.  (2): 387-394 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 957KB] ( 39 )
395 Concepts, Cues and Influential Mechanisms of Social Categorization
wen fangfang
As the basic process and important way of social cognition, social categorization is the subjective process of dividing others into different groups based on shared similarity. It is also the focus of current researchers such as cognitive psychology and social psychology. Social categorization organizes the rich knowledge about human attributes and about the complex network of human social life, and it plays critical role to understand the self in the interpersonal group, give meaning and reduce uncertainty, predict stereotypes and intergroup perception, promote reasoning and decision-making and to guide the inference of social relations. In general, people are often based on various types of cues for social categorization, which can be summarized as obvious cues and ambiguous cues, natural/ physiological cues and social cues, and static cues and dynamic cues. Specifically, people usually classify others based on some relatively stable and immutable obvious cues such as face shape and skin color and the process is automatic and unconscious. In addition to obvious visual cues, some cues that are relatively vague (such as sexual orientation, religious belief) are also important basis for social categorization. Gender, race and age are called the “Big Three” category and are important natural cues for social categorization. In addition to natural cues, people also classify others according to social cues such as professional roles and status. Static cues such as resumes, archives and other text information also serve as an important basis for social categorization. In addition to static cues, dynamic cues including facial expression and voice tones in interpersonal interaction are also important references for social categorization. Social categorization will be affected by a series of social cognitional factors such as the objects classified, context and perceives. For example, the factors of objects such as the different types of categories (single or multidimensional), the accessibility and salience of categories, the factors of context such as the different cultural backgrounds, living conditions and cooperation and competitive context, and the factors of perceivers such as experience, motivations, intentions, collective memories and identity changes will have an impact on social categorization. Furthermore, in most situations, social categorization is a rapid, efficient and spontaneous process, so the underlying psychological mechanisms of social categorization are diverse and complex. In general, the need for structure and certainty and group identity are important mechanisms of social categorization. Moreover, social categorization is of profoundly implication to the perception, memory and information coding of interpersonal interaction. However, social categorization will produce a series of negative effects on people’s psychology and behavior. For example, cognitive bias such as stereotypes, emotion recognition, prejudice and behavior inferences will be influenced by social categorization. Finally, it will become the main direction of future research to explore the social categories preferences based on the cross-cultural and development perspectives, explore the potential mechanisms, and examine the influences of social categorization and the intervention strategies based on the local cultural research.
2019 Vol.  (2): 395-401 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 330KB] ( 94 )
402 A study to measuring methods of nominal advice-taking
Decision making has become a hot topic in psychological research for a long time, and research of advice-taking is also on the rise. The previous research of advice-taking mostly starts with the difference between the judge's initial decision and the final decision, and does not take into account the implicit attitude of the judge. In this study, from the perspective of implicit attitude, advice-taking was divided into nominal advice-taking and real advice-taking. In nominal advice-taking, jugdes may accept advices verbally, but the judge’s heart is not really accept advices, from the point of implicit attitude, although in the final judges accept advices, but the implicit cognition and attitude has not changed, cognitive dissonance may exist in the process. The experiment used the implicit association test and test-retest method to measure the nominal advice-taking and compared two methods. The participants were randomly selected by the two methods of implicit association test (N=67) and test-retest method (N=52), all the subjects with normal vision, without Color blindness and color weakness. Implicit association test is an indirect way to measure implicit social cognition of individuals by measuring the evaluative relationship between concept words and attribute words.In this method, we picked out the questions in which the judge accepted the advice, then statisticed the reaction time of the two options between the compatible group and the incompatible group to compare. Thus we could measure the degree of nominal advice-taking. The test-retest method is the same test of two times for the same subjects with a certain interval of time. In this method, we compared the choices of the same question by the same participant to measure the degree of nominal advice-taking. Firstly, the word search task was used to initiate a low sense of power of the participant. Then participants needed to finish a decision task. In the implicit association test, participants were required to complete a task of categorizing words at the same time, the reaction time of the participants was analyzed to measure the degree of nominal advice-taking. If the reaction time of the compatible group was longer than the incompatible group, then in this question, the judge had nominal advice-taking. In the test-retest method, the participants were required to complete the same decision task after two weeks, finally compared the choices in two times to measure the degree of nominal advice-taking. If the choices were different, the judge had nominal advice-taking. The study found that, first of all, two kinds of measuring methods were able to measure the nominal advice-taking of judge successfully. But the results of the two kinds of measuring methods were different, the degree of nominal advice-taking measured by test-retest method was higher than implicit association test. Overall,This study emphasizes the implicit attitude, from this point of view, advice-taking was divided into nominal advice-taking and real advice-taking. Two methods were used to measure the nominal advice-taking of judge. It lays a foundation for the research of nominal advice-taking and opens a new direction for the research of advice-taking.
2019 Vol.  (2): 402-406 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 308KB] ( 41 )
407 An antecedent of the organizational citizenship behavior: the perspective of individuals and organizations
Tertiary industry has developed rapidly and became a significant pillar of economic growth. Simultaneously, service quality is gradually becoming an importance factor which restricts its development. The employees who are the main carriers of service values need to interact with customers frequently. Against this background, how to enhance employees’ organizational citizenship behavior(OCB) to meet customer requirements and improve the service quality have drawn increasing attentions from research and practice communities. However, the previous studies are mainly from a single perspective, more efforts are needed to investigate the relationship between person-organization fit and OCB from the interactive perspective, which has no consistent conclusion for now. According to the social exchange theory, employee can increase work engagement when they obtain great resources through person-organization fit. Furthermore, person-organization fit includes individual factor and situational factor, which can affect individual behavior based on person-situation interactionist theory. Individual factor and situational factor may also effect the relationship between person-organization fit and OCB, to strengthen or weaken the relationship. Therefore, this current study discusses the effect of person-organization fit on OCB. Specially, this paper introduces employee engagement as a mediator, proactive personality and supervisor support as the moderators which represent individual factor and situational factor respectively. Moreover, we proposed a moderated mediation model to disentangle the underlying mechanism and boundary condition of the relationship between person-organization fit and OCB. We adopted questionnaire research method to test our proposed hypotheses. Initially, we issued 270 questionnaires, and finally used a sample of 225 employees from 12 restaurants. Consistent with our hypotheses, the results indicated that: (1)person-organization fit positively predicts organizational citizenship behavior, with the effect mediated by employee engagement; (2)supervisor support moderates the mediation effect between person-organization fit and organizational citizenship behavior, indicating that the indirect effect became stronger among those who receive higher leader support;(3)proactive personality moderates the mediation effect between person-organization fit and organizational citizenship behavior, indicating that the indirect effect became weaker among those who are more proactive. In general, the current study has answered:(1) How does person-organization fit influence employees OCB? (2) Under what condition is person-organization fit more likely to influence OCB? The findings of the current study have substantial theoretical implications as well as practical implications. Theoretically, this paper verifies the positive effect of person-organization fit on OCB. Furthermore, based on social exchange theory, the study advances our knowledge by proposing employee engagement as a mediator. Finally, integrating the individual and organizational factors to the research model according to person-situation interactionist theory, this paper contributes the person-organization fit and OCB literature by raising proactive personality and supervisor support as the moderators. Practically, our research bears implications for tertiary industry as to how to elicit employee organizational citizenship behavior, which include selecting the employees who match with organization, providing enough support and concern to employees, and expecially paying more attention to the employees with high proactive personality as their dynamic demands needed to be satisfied in time. Limitations and future researches are also discussed.
2019 Vol.  (2): 407-414 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 774KB] ( 38 )
415 Take-over Process and the Construction of Drivers' Psychological Model under Conditionally automated driving
Different vehicles have different level of automation, which makes researchers confused how to do specific research. In order to embracing the new area of intelligent properly, According to the degree of automation, SAE set a standard to divide vehicles into six grades from 0-5.As we all know, during automatic drive of L3, when the vehicle incapable of dealing with difficulty, the AutoPilot system will send alarm signal to the driver, what we call this as Take-Over Request. In case of emergency, the driver can do nothing but pay attention to the traffic, and based on the information he obtained from traffic, should find an appropriate way to deal with the problems, we call this as Take-Over Process(Gold et al., 2015). Zeeb et al. (2015)&Petermeijer et al.(2016) who tend to combine Take-Over Request with time dimensions, and they devote themselves to define the specific TIME POINT of Take-Over Request, and find the phases of timeline correspond to certain psychological activities. Besides, they give a specific advice to improve the Take-Over Request’s proficiency. Based on their researches, the course of Take-Over Request is divided into three phases respectively. phase 1: evoking vigilant stat; Phase 2: Take-Over decision-making and Phase 3 Take-Over performing, which the process of three phases will take 0.8 seconds(Petermeijer et al., 2016)、4.2 seconds(Gold et al., 2013) and 2.4 seconds(鲁光泉等,2018)respectively. However, Other researchers, such as K?rber et al.(2016)&Naujoks et al.(2017)inclined to believe that the process of Take-Over Request is an integrated whole. In this word, in order to revise the Zeeb’s hypothesis and improve the theoretical models, combined many possible influential factors, including demographics, non-driving related tasks, driving fatigue and a sense of trust etc., we develop a theoretical model of three phases of Take-Over Request process. In this study, by means of questionaire and driving stimulator experiments, we investigate the relationship between the length of takeover process and other possible influential factors. The result shows that age difference is independent of the driver’s takeover performance. However, age has relations to driver’s operation style(compared to the younger driver, older driver intervene the AutoPilot system more frequent). There is significant positive relationship between a sense of AutoPilot and execute other non-driving related tasks. naturally, spending more in operating non-driving related tasks have negative relation to the proficiency of takeover process. Besides, compared to traditional driving style, it’s easier for drivers who as a monitor be passive fatigue state in the AutoPilot systems, which have adverse effect on the proficiency of takeover process. As a matter of fact, It’s easy to see that the process of Take-Over Request is totally complicate, including but not limited to the process of evoking vigilant state, making decision and operating. Unfortunately, in the intelligent transportation system field of study, researchers didn’t pay enough attention to this specific process of Take-Over Request. Beside, We should put the theory into practice by optimizing the design of human-computer interaction panel、training and guiding drivers how to use vehicle automation system properly. Enhancing driver’s abilities and their safety consciousness in monitoring can not overemphasized.
2019 Vol.  (2): 415-421 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 739KB] ( 56 )
422 Multinomial Processing Tree Models and Their Application in Social Psychology
Yuanyuan LIU Yi DING Chuan-Peng HU
Understanding psychological processes and mechanisms behind social behaviours is one of the most important goals of social psychology. Psychologists have proposed many theoretical models to explain people’s social behaviours. It is still, however, difficult to quantify the contribution of hypothesized psychological processes to a specific behaviour. Recently, social psychologist introduced multinomial processing tree (MPT) models to address this problem. MPT models, which combine knowledge from cognitive psychology, statistics, and other related disciplines, are simple and effective ways to model behavioural data. These models hypothesize that input stimuli are processed in different steps in a tree-like manner. More specifically, each stimulus is processed by a hypothetical psychological process (i.e., a node in the decision tree), which results in a binary outcome (i.e., two branches): either a behavioural response or an intermediate outcome. The intermediate outcome will be further processed by a downstream psychological process (i.e., another node) until a behavioural outcome is produced. Thus, each behavioural output links back to the stimuli through the combination of all the processes before it, such that its probability equals to the product of the probabilities of all preceding processes multiplied together. Importantly, the probabilities of all behavioural outputs from one type of stimuli sum up to one. Thus, researchers can fit these data to multiple nominal formulas and estimate the probability of each psychological process. To use MPT models, researchers first need to construct a model in which the psychological processes of the process-tree are specified. After that, researchers can fit the model with behavioural data and test the goodness-of-fit. Then, the well-fitted model and its parameters need to be validated based on theories. Only after validation, the model can be accepted as valid model of the question-of-interest, and be used to generate and test new hypotheses. Although the logic of MPT models is easy, the estimation of parameters and test of goodness-of-fit are hard to finish manually because of the massive computation involved. Several computer programs (e.g. multitree, treeBugs) have been developed to simplify the calculating procedure. These user-friendly programs make the MPT models more accessible to social psychologists. By now, MPT models have been applied in many areas of social psychology, such as attitude and stereotype. Recently, MPT models have been applied to advanced moral social behaviour: moral judgment. For instance, Gawronski et al. (2017) developed the CNI (consequence, norm, inaction preference) model based on MPT. In the CNI model, the influences of consequences, norm, and inaction preference on moral decision-making are dissociated and quantified. Therefore, researchers can examine hypotheses that previous studies on moral decision-making can not test. For example, it is possible that moral decision-making can be motivated by both utilitarian and deontological motivations, or, by neither of them. Using CNI model, Gawronski et al. (2017) tested the effect of gender, cognitive load, and trait psychopathy on moral decision-making. Given the advantages of quantifying psychological processes behind social behaviours, MPT model can serve as a useful tool for social psychologists. However, before applying MPT models to their own research question, researchers should check carefully whether or not they have clear assumptions about the psychological processes of the social behaviours they interested in. In addition, the neural correlates of assumed psychological processes in MPT models are largely unknown, so future studies may consider combining MPT models with neuroimaging techniques to explore the neural basis of psychological processes. Finally, MPT models might increase the research flexibility in how research design is carried out, which might be more likely to make false positive results. Thus, researchers should be transparent about their analysis and decision process when applying MPT model to their own research questions.
2019 Vol.  (2): 422-429 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 520KB] ( 55 )
430 Effect of Organization Identification on Knowledge Sharing of Primary and Secondary School Teachers: The Mediating Role of Team Identification and the Moderating Role of Relationship Conflict
In the context of the reform and development of education in the new era, how to motivate teachers' knowledge sharing behavior in knowledge management is the key to successful improving the quality of schooling. The research objects in the past mainly focus on the group of employees, and There is a relative lack of research on teachers (primary and secondary school teachers). In the past, few studies have studied the two variables of organizational identity and team identity at the same time in the study of the driving mechanism of knowledge sharing. At the same time, the previous research on the impact of knowledge sharing is mostly concentrated in the perspective of interpersonal relationships, but less on the influence of relationship conflict. In view of this, drawing on social identity theory and interpersonal conflict theory, the study develops a moderated mediation model to investigate the roles of team identification and relationship conflict that play in the relationship between organization identification and knowledge sharing. We conduct a survey on teachers of primary and secondary schools located in Beijing and collect 1342 useful data. Data were analyzed using Mplus7.0, SPSS24.0 and the SPSS macro PROCESS which was specifically developed for assessing the complex models including both mediator and moderator. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the above measures were from 0.723 to 0.871 showing good reliability. Correlation analysis and hierarchical regression modeling were used to test the hypotheses proposed. In line with hypotheses, regression results revealed that: (1) organization identification has significant positive effects on knowledge sharing; (2) team identification partly mediates the influence of organization identification on knowledge sharing; (3) relationship conflict moderates the influence of team identification on knowledge sharing. After this, we drew an interaction graph which further confirmed the moderate effect of relationship conflict on the relationship between team identification and knowledge sharing. The present study highlights the mediating role of team identification and the moderating role of relationship conflict in the effect of organization identification on knowledge sharing. It may contribute to a better understanding of the effects as well as its paths and conditions of organization identification on knowledge sharing of primary and secondary school teachers. Moreover, it can also provide constructive suggestions for promoting the knowledge management of school and enhancing the quality of education by driving the knowledge sharing of teachers. The present research has certain theoretical and practical significance, however, there are still some limitations and deficiencies in this study, which needs to be improved and perfected in the future. In terms of limitations, (1) the data only collected under the design of cross section research, which makes the causality of the variable difficult to effectively confirm; which makes the causality of the variable difficult to effectively confirm; future studies are necessary to collect data with multi-period point measurement. (2) we collected the data from schools in Beijing; the generalization of the findings to other areas may be problematic. (3) we didn't distinguish interpersonal relationship conflict from leader or colleague; future studies are necessary to collect subordinate-supervisor and colleague-colleague dyads data.
2019 Vol.  (2): 430-436 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 768KB] ( 72 )
437 Comparison and Application of Polytomous Cognitive Diagnosis Models with Different Link Functions: Based on category-level Q-matrix
Cognitive Diagnosis Assessment (CDA) has recently received increasing attention due to the diagnostic function that is not available in traditional measurement theory. At present, a variety of CDMs have been proposed, but these models are mostly 0-1 score, cannot be used for polytomously scored items, and that will greatly limit their application and development in cognitive diagnosis. Because polytomous scored items are very common in practical applications, they have higher efficacy than dichotomous scored items. To deal with polytomous items more appropriately, a few polytomous CDMs have been developed. In view of the current research, researchers often choose different link functions to develop polytomous CDMs:Dongbo Tu developed the polytomous P-DINA model based on the Global or Cumulative link function in 2010, and Ma & de la Torre developed the Seq-GDINA model based on the Continuation Ration link function in 2016. In the Seq-GDINA model, the author defines a property definition based on the item category, modifying the traditional Q matrix to a category-level Q-matrix (QC-matrix). The traditional Q-matrix is based on the definition of the project level, ignoring the different manifestations of the attributes in the category, which will result in the loss of the existing information. In this paper a new polytomous model LC-DINA based on Local or Adjacent Categories Link Function was developed, and the MCMC algorithm was used to realize the estimation of the parameters and the properties of the new model. Then, the proposed model LC-DINA was compared with the existing model Seq-DINA, P-DINA under the QC setting by Simulation study and using the data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007(TIMMS) assessment. In conclusion, the Monte Carlo simulation and empirical application research are used to study the logical structure and applicable conditions of the three cognitive recognition models under three different link functions, providing a practical reference for users. The results of the paper showed that:(1)The good precision of ability parameters indicated that MCMC algorithm method and new polytomous cognitive diagnosis model was feasible. (2)The comparison of LC-DINA, P-DINA and Seq-DINA showed that the estimated precision of person parameters (MMR and PRM) is influenced by the quality of the item. The attribute match ration (MMR & PMR) decreased with the increase of the slipping and guessing parameter. (3)When the real model is consistent with the fitting model, the attribute match ration is the highest. In this condition, the LC-DINA model is the best when the item quality is best and the P-DINA model is the best when the item quality is poor, and the Seq-DINA model is the worst in all the conditions. (4)In the application of using the data from the TIMSS 2007 assessment show that: LC-DINA is the most suitable model based on the Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) and the correlation coefficient between the expected score and the observed score. In the Seq-GDINA model, the author defines a property definition based on the item category, modifying the traditional Q matrix to a category-level Q-matrix (QC-matrix). Take √(7.5?0.3-16)=?as an example, to solve this item, three steps may be involved: first calculate 7.5 / 0.3 = 25, need to use the "division" (A1), Then calculate 25-16 = 9, use "subtraction" (A2), and finally calculate √9=3, use "open square" (A3). In the example, you can see that the different categories of the project measure different attributes. The QC-matrix is defined as follows: item j is assumed to have H j+1 categories (i.e., 0; 1; ...; Hj ),the QC-matrix is a H j*K binary matrix, each of Hj rows has K elements indicating which attributes are required by the category. Therefore, the QC matrix of the above example is [■(1&0&0@0&1&0@0&0&1)], While the traditional Q matrix is [1,1,1]. The traditional Q-matrix is based on the definition of the project level, ignoring the different manifestations of the attributes in the category, which will result in the loss of the existing information. In this paper a new polytomous model LC-DINA based on Local or Adjacent Categories Link Function was developed, and the MCMC algorithm was used to realize the estimation of the parameters and the properties of the new model. Then, The proposed model LC-DINA was compared with the existing model SEQ-DINA, P-DINA under the QC setting by Simulation study and using the data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007(TIMMS) assessment. In conclusion, the Monte Carlo simulation and empirical application research are used to study the logical structure and applicable conditions of the three cognitive recognition models under three different link functions, which provides a reference for practical users. The results of the paper showed that:(1)The good precision of ability parameters indicated that MCMC algorithm method and new polytomous cognitive diagnosis model was feasible. (2) The comparison of LC-DINA, P-DINA and SEQ-DINA showed that the estimated precision of person parameters (MMR and PRM) is influenced by the quality of the item. The attribute match ration (MMR & PMR) decreased with the increase of the slipping and guessing parameter.(3) When the real model is consistent with the fitting model, the attribute match ration is the highest. In this condition, the LC-DINA model is the best when the item quality is best and the P-DINA model is the best when the item quality is poor, and the Seq-DINA model is the worst in all the conditions.(4)In the application of using the data from the TIMSS 2007 assessment show that: LC-DINA is the most suitable model based on the Deviance Information Criterion(DIC) and the correlation coefficient between the expected score and the observed score.
2019 Vol.  (2): 437-445 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1596KB] ( 36 )
446 Reliability and Validity Indices Based on Integrated Posteriori Information for Polytomous Attributes in Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment
Classification consistency and accuracy are respectively deemed as significant criterions for evaluating the reliability and validity of test property in cognitive diagnostic assessment (CDA). Some indices, such as tetrachoric correlation, pattern-level classification consistency and accuracy indices, and attribute- and pattern-level classification consistency and accuracy indices have been introduced by several Psychometrians. However, all the existing indices focus on the scenario with dichotomous attributes. A CDA with polytomous attributes has received more and more attention in recent years due to additional diagnostic information that polytomous attributes can provide. This article first points out that the posterior probability distributions of attribute profiles and marginal posterior probability distributions of individual attributes under polytomous attribute scenario are rather different from those under dichotomous attribute scenario. Due to these distinctions, new classification consistency and accuracy indices that can represent the reliability and validity for a CDA with polytomous attributes are needed. This article proposes the attribute- and pattern-level classification consistency and accuracy indices based on binary method and develops procedures for the computation of the new indices specifically designed for CDAs with polytomous attributes. These indices make it possible to calculate the reliability and validity of CDAs with polytomous attributes. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the performance of the new indices using RPa-DINA model. In the simulation, the authors investigate the effects of five different factors: the hightest level of polytomous attributes, item quality, test length, number of polytomous attributes, and cutoff scores. Simulation results indicate that: (1) different values of cutoff score affect the performance of the reliability and validity indices. The RMSEs are almost similar when Ck and Cp are bounded between 0.1 and 0.6. Especially, the RMSE values are lowest when Ck and Cp are around 0.5 in most experiment conditions. So, the cutoff score taking 0.5 is recommended in practice. (2) the RMSEs of attribute- and pattern-level classification consistency and accuracy increase with the hightest level of polytomous attributes and the number of polytomous attributes. (3) the RMSEs decrease with item quality and test length. Finally, the authors discuss the essence of difference about the posterior probability distributions and marginal posterior probability distributions between dichotomous and polytomous attribute scenarios. Some practical suggestions for test construction are given and future research directions are proposed.
2019 Vol.  (2): 446-454 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2159KB] ( 49 )
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2019 Vol.  (2): 455-462 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 790KB] ( 42 )
463 Positive Social Mentality: The Goals, Mechanism and Pathways of Cultivation with Mindfulness
The positive social mentality is to serve the country and the current social development needs in a certain historical period. It can promote the free and full development of social members and can play a key and core role. The cultivation of social mentality can be understood as the development of social mentality, education and guidance. It is the process of turning negative social mentality into a positive social mentality. The authors putted forward the mechanism hypothesis of cultivating positive social mentality and transforming negative social mentality: improve individual and situational mindfulness through mindfulness parenting, mindfulness education, mindfulness community and mindfulness production, and to cultivate and transform social mentality through cyclic reactions, implicit interactions and value accumulation in complex systems. In the past 40 years, mindfulness has become a kind of psychological intervention and self-training method after the secularization in the west, which has a positive effect on individual, group cognition and emotion. In current research contexts, mindfulness is typically defined as nonjudgmental attention to experiences in the present moment. The mindfulness training program has developed from the medical field to education, into the community and towards the society. It can be seen from the research results of the physiological and psychological mechanism of mindfulness that mindfulness can be used as a theoretical basis for cultivating positive social mentality in the new era. Current specifically discuss mindfulness intervention mechanism for social mentality research has not reported, but the psychological and brain mechanisms of mindfulness especially mindfulness neural physiological mechanism of emotion regulation has accumulated more results. It can help understand how mindfulness training transforms the social mentality. The further research on the basis of clear mechanisms plays an important role. Mindfulness has the internal characteristics of enhancing self-regulation, non-critical awareness and increasing pro-social behavior, which can mediate and moderate between negative and positive mental transformation. The main ways to foster positive social attitudes include: mindfulness parenting, mindfulness education, mindfulness community and Mindfulness production. Mindfulness parenting is the application of general mindfulness to parent-child interaction. It mainly refers to parents' intentional, present and non-judgmental attention and awareness of their children and upbringing. Mindfulness education is the combination of mindfulness and education. It make education situation has obvious characteristics of mindfulness, mainly refers to the attention and awareness that the teachers are interested in students and teaching, at the moment and non-judgmental. It includes four aspects: mindfulness intervention, mindfulness teaching, mindfulness management and mindfulness environment. Mindfulness community refers to the use of mindfulness in a community context, and a mindfulness based intervention for different groups of people. Mindfulness production refers to the use of righteousness in corporate contexts, reducing employee burnout, management pressures, and improving relationship harmony, job performance, leadership, job satisfaction, and career delays. At present, the research on cultivating positive social psychology is relatively scattered. The future should focus on the work of measurement optimization, theoretical construction and mechanism exploration: Constructing the mental service system of mindfulness;Distinguishing between secular and religious thoughts;Studying the relationship between implicit mindfulness and positive social mentality; absorbing nutrition from the oriental traditional culture; using the multi-dimensional measurement and development localization scale, and combining the implicit measurement with explicit measurement. Therefore, to promote theoretical development, we need to compile scales that are suitable for the people of the country. Through experiments, we can clarify the specific mechanism for the effectiveness of righteous thoughts and conduct cross-cultural comparative studies between East and West to provide necessary theoretical support for the practice of mindfulness in Chinese localization. The system construction of mindfulness services, need further research and development for different groups of practice projects, increasing of mindfulness teacher or guidance personnel training, to form a mindful professional talent team, emphasizing on evidence-based research project.
2019 Vol.  (2): 463-469 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 460KB] ( 53 )
470 Exploring the Application of Mindfulness Meditation in the Interventions for the Children with ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms that include the inability to keep one’s attention focused on a task, trouble organizing tasks, avoiding things that take effort, and follow-through. ADHD may also include problems with hyperactivity and impulsivity. Mindfulness meditation is the increased awareness that arises when we pay attention to the present experience, non-judgmentally. Recently, mindfulness meditation has been introduced as a promising intervention approach for improving the mental and physical health of children with ADHD. Several aspects of the mindfulness-based intervention for adults have been adapted for children with ADHD. First, the duration of each lesson or each exercise is shortened, and the varieties of activities are improved, along with making it enjoyable. Second, a target reward system is established, in which children are rewarded for their homework and active participation in the class. Third, using metaphors helps children understand the implication of mindfulness, and master the essentials of the practice; these metaphors are advised to be based on children's daily experiences. Besides, considering the importance of parents in children’s lives, the intervention practices usually involve them. Research, including case studies, quasi-experimental studies, and randomized controlled trials, has shown that mindfulness training significantly improves the core symptoms of ADHD in children. Preliminary studies have shown that mindfulness meditation can improve attention in children with ADHD. Previous studies have also shown that mindfulness-based psychological intervention techniques can improve the hyperactive/impulsive behaviors of children with ADHD to some extent. Mindfulness meditation can also reduce anxiety and depression in children with ADHD, and can improve the symptoms of externalization, such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. The advantages of mindfulness intervention for parenting are also evident. For example, by participating in mindfulness training, parents learned to pay attention to what their children talked about, to be more aware of how their children felt, and became more empathetic. Mindfulness also works in improving parent-child bonding, by promoting positive interactions, reducing negative reactions, and decreasing the feeling that their parents are being over-controlling. With respect to psychological mechanisms, mindfulness meditation is effective in improving executive functions and decentering. Executive functions are a set of cognitive processes for behavioral control, including selecting and monitoring behaviors for the purpose of achieving chosen goals. Children with ADHD have problems with executive functions, which can be improved through mindfulness training. Mindfulness interventions also enable children with ADHD to observe their moment-to-moment experiences more objectively, and this decentered mindset may be helpful for mental well-being. In addition, changes in brain activation patterns and structures may be the neural basis of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions in children with ADHD. Mindfulness practice improves activity and functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex. Studies have also shown that mindfulness practice reduces activity and functional connectivity in the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex. Mindfulness meditation increases the density and thickness of gray matter in the prefrontal cortex. Based on the above discussion, the current paper points out the shortcomings of existing research in relation to the contents and methodologies used, and then proposes possible future research directions.
2019 Vol.  (2): 470-476 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 340KB] ( 65 )
477 The Effect of Neuroticism on Emotional Eating of Adolescents: The Role of Experiential Avoidance and Self-Esteem
Abstract In recent decades, emotional eating has become an important issue in the study of eating disorders, eating disorders and obesity. Studies have shown that adolescents are also a high-incidence group for emotional eating behavior. This not only leads to adolescents' risk of obesity, but also increases their risk of eating disorders, which seriously affects the physical and mental health of young people. Therefore, the researchers believe that it is necessary to discuss the intrinsic mechanism of adolescents' emotional eating, so as to provide theoretical support for the prevention and intervention strategies of adolescents' emotional eating behavior, and to reduce the incidence of dietary diseases caused by adolescents' emotional eating behaviors. Some 900 students in middle and high schools were selected as samples, of which 288 were male and 458 were female, with an average age of 15.56. All the subjects assembled in class and completed the questionnaire within 20 minutes.The questionnaires included the NEO.PIR, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire(DEBQ), Acceptance Action Questionnaire(AAQ), and The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale(RSES).Data was collected and analyzed with Spss 24.0, Amos21.0 and Mplus7.4, and the bias-corrected percentile Bootstrap method was used to analyze the role of experiential avoidance and self-esteem between neuroticism and junior middle school students' emotional eating. A exploratory factor analysis was calculated to test the common method variance. Results showed that the study was in-existent common method variance. The results showed that: (1) The relationship between each pair of neuroticism, experience avoidance, emotional eating behavior, and self-esteem was significant and positive. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.303 to 0.335 (p < 0.01). (2) The structural equation model (SEM) reveals that the data fits the theoretical model well (2/df=4.16,CFI=0.93,TLI=0.91,SRMR=0.04,RMSEA=0.07). (3) Neuroticism had a significant direct effect on emotional eating behavior ((β=0.28, p<0.01)); neuroticism had a significant direct impact on experience avoidance (β=0.36, p<0.01); experience avoidance had a significant direct effect of emotional eating behavior (β=0.25, p<0.01); self-esteem had no significant direct effect on emotional eating behavior (β=0.028, p>0.05); interaction had a significant direct effect on emotional eating behavior Impact (β=0.351, p<0.01). (4) The indirect effect of neuroticism on emotional eating behavior is caused by experience avoidance, 95% confidence interval is [0.013, 0.278]; (5) Self-esteem moderates the relation the relationship between experience avoidance and emotional eating behavior. there is a significant positive correlation between low self-esteem regulation and the emotional avoidance of middle school students, but at high levels of self-esteem, there is a non-significant relationship between experience avoidance and emotional eating behavior. It is concluded that in the structural equation model of neuroticism on emotional eating behavior of junior middle school students students,experiential avoidance plays a partial mediating role and self-esteem moderates the indirect effect.These findings suggest some measures of prevention and treatment for junior middle school students students’ Emotional eating behavior should be taken. Schools and families should set up a good core self-evaluation system in order to help them improve their self-esteem and reduce experience avoidance level and eradicate Emotional eating behavior.
2019 Vol.  (2): 477-483 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 641KB] ( 44 )
484 The Impact of Clue on Different Radiologists’ Decision-making
Meixiang CHEN
With the increasingly important role of modern medical photography in medical diagnosis, the significance of radiologists’ decision making is also growing. However, studies have revealed a high rate of false negative in image interpretation. About 40 percent of radiological examinations are operated on chest with 26% false-negative errors. False negatives do harm to the health of the patients, lead to medical disputes and even causes significant medical negligence. Applied prospectively, double reading is used for quality assurance of current radiology reports. With this method the results of two separate observers are combined to yield one result. It is considered negative if both results are negative and positive if at least one of the individual results is positive. Many studies have found that double reading can reduce errors and increase sensitivity though it may be at the expense of specificity. In China, double reading is also applied in radiology departments in major hospitals, but conducted differently. The specific process begins with the interpretation of a patient’s image by a doctor, who makes a diagnosis and completes the writing of a diagnostic report. The second doctor then signs the image report. The problem of this conduct is that the first doctor’s diagnosis can be a clue to the second doctor. There were arguments about the impact of clue on the radiologists’ decision making. Some studies have shown that the availability of clue increased diagnostic accuracy, while others found no significant increase in accuracy but distraction. The expectation that clue (other’s impact) can increase accuracy has not been confirmed so far. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of clue on different radiologists’ decision-making. Which factor affected the decision-making by radiologists mostly, their expertise or other’s impact on them? We tested the hypotheses in a single experiment by using eye-movement technique. Experts and novices were selected as experimental objects. Their expertise was set as non-variables, while clue words were adopted to control others’ impact. The X-ray was adopted as experimental material with the task of detecting pulmonary nodule. The SMI250 Eye Tracker was selected as our experimental instrument.15 experts and 19 novices participated in the experiment to explore the decision making between experts and novices in different cue categories (yes or no), different size (big or small) and location (concealed or non-concealed) of nodules. The major findings of the present study were: (1) For experts, the false negatives rate of small nodule in concealed position with clues was lower than without clues, while, for novices, the false negatives rate of all sizes of nodule with clues was lower than that without clues. (2) It appears that experts, with more experience, were less affected by clues than novices. (3) With the help of clues, both times of fixation and total fixation time increased in experts and novices. (4) The times of re-fixation indicated that novices spare more cognitive resources on processing of clue words. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that clue made an important positive influence on radiologists’ decision-making. On the other hand, experience and other’s impact played a joint role in radiologists’ decision-makings, while other’s impacts played a bigger role in the novices’ decision-making process.Findings of the present study provided the first evidence that other’s impact may cause the second doctor to have preconceived notions about the results, biasing the overall interpretation. We proposed that radiologists should review radiographs without knowledge of the clininal scenario ing to avoid focusing on the expected findings.
2019 Vol.  (2): 484-491 [Abstract] ( 3 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1178KB] ( 53 )
492 The Effect of Facial Features’ Integrity on Emotional Gender Recognition in Children with autism
LIN YunQiang Xian-Jia CAO
Abstract This paper mainly studies three contents: first, whether different parts of face covering will effect face gender recognition for children with autism. Second, whether the types of expressions will effect face gender recognition for them. Last, if there is any difference between children with autism and other children when recognizing face gender. This study was a 3 (types of children: children with autism, children with mental retardation and typically developing children) × 3 (types of expression: happy, neutral and angry) × 4 (covered positions: eye, mouth, nose and none) mixed design. 63 children were enrolled in the study, including 21 children with autism, 21 children with mental retardation and 21 typically developing children. The stimuli were 240 face images. The experimental procedure of this study was completed by E-Prime. In the formal test, presentation would be shown first. And then presented the gaze point "+" in the middle of the screen. The stimulus would automatically transfer to the interface 1000ms later. We didn’t set time for stimulus, but when someone made key reaction, it would automatically transfer to the blank. The blank page would last for 1000ms. The next round of stimulus interface was followed by a random presentation of stimulus interface. Each of the 60 pictures was taken off during the experiment. The experiment mainly determined two correct analysis indexes of facial gender recognition: correct rate and correct reaction time. Variance analysis was used as the dependent variable with the type of test, and the types of expressions and the covering parts of face were as independent variables. The results showed that the main effect of the types of expressions is significant, F(2, 120)=145.056, p=.000, η2 p=.707. The main effect of types of children was closely significant, F(2, 60)=2.563, p=.086, η2 p=.079.When further compared, it showed that the accuracy of face recognition (M=.756, SE=.015) was higher in typical development children than in children with autism(M=.710, SE=.015). The interaction effect were significant between the types of children and the types of facial expressions ,F(4, 120)=4.641,p=0.002, η2 p=.134. The interaction effect was significant between the types of facial expressions and the parts of facial covering. Correct reaction time was used as the dependent variable with the type of test, and the types of expressions and the covering parts of face are as independent variables. The results showed that the main effect of types of children was not significant, F(2, 60)=1.921, p=.155. The main effect of the types of expressions was not significant, F(2, 120)=2.368, p=.098. The main effect of the parts of facial covering was not significant, F(3, 180)=.733, p=.533. The main conclusions of this study were as followed: First, the face recognition ability of children with autism was not as better as typical developmental children, and there was a significant difference between typical developmental children and mentally retarded children. Second, the processing of facial gender recognition for children with autism was affected by the expression types, which showed that the neutral expression was better than the happy expression and the happy expression was better than angry expression. Third, children with autism showed obvious local processing features in the process of facial gender recognition, which mainly relied on eye information for face gender recognition.
2019 Vol.  (2): 492-499 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1216KB] ( 52 )
500 Review of Phonological Coding Research Paradigms in Deaf/Hard of Hearing
Phonological coding plays an important role in reading for hearing readers. Most deaf or hard of hearing readers have great difficulty in learning to read, and there are plenty of studies to explore the reasons for these reading difficulties. Since the main difference between the deaf and the hearing readers is whether they have full access to the auditory input or not, one well accepted explanation for deaf readers’ difficulty is the lack of phonological coding during reading. However, There has been a significant degree of debate within the published literature concerning the extent to which deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading. Some studies have found that deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading, while other studies have not found that deaf readers activate phonological coding. There is a large difference between Chinese and alphabetic writing systems. In alphabetic writing systems, there is always a certain mapping between the spelling of a word and its pronunciation, that is, there is a orthography-phonology transformation. Compared with alphabetic writing systems, Chinese has a low level of orthographic transparency. The orthography-phonology transformation of Chinese characters is not always regular or consistent. Whether Chinese deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading has gradually begun to receive attention. The study of explore whether deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading Chinese has just started and the research conclusions are controversial. The research paradigm used in the experiment and the characteristics of the deaf readers are the main reasons for the disagreement about whether deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading. The research content of different research paradigms is different, and the lexical processing process reflected in the research results is not completely consistent. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce the research paradigms in the phonological coding research of the deaf readers in detail. There has been several research paradigms concerning the phonological coding in deaf readers at abroad, including phonological awareness task, naming task, lexical judgment task and sentence reading task. Further, the lexical judgment task includes homophone judgment task and mask prime task, the sentence reading task includes error disruption paradigm, parafoveal phonological preview task and tongue-twister reading task. In order to provide reference for Chinese scholars who study whether Chinese deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading. The present paper introduces these research paradigms including the experiment procedures, experimental rationals and the related studies of these experimental tasks. Furthermore, the present paper introduces the application of these research paradigms in Chinese research. In the end, we discuss the future directions in the research of Chinese deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading. Based on the review of the prior research, some advice have been put forward for the future: (1) Chinese as a experimental material to explore the advantages of whether deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading; (2) Using eye tracking technique to explore whether deaf readers activate phonological coding during reading is a new trend; (3) To investigate the mental mechanism of deaf readers’ phonological coding by combining brain imaging technology and behavior research.
2019 Vol.  (2): 500-505 [Abstract] ( 1 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 322KB] ( 46 )
506 Thinking on the Research Methods of Psychobiography
Ye-Zhen SONG
Abstract In the course of the development of contemporary psychology, the separation of noumenon and method has led to a split between humanities psychology and scientific psychology. Scientific psychology is limited by natural scientific methods, and its concern for human nature is reduced to simple concepts and variables in the laboratory. However, the traditional psychobiography based on humanistic psychology, brings life story,life meaning and individual experience into the scope of problem consciousness, and faces the psychological dynamic system of human beings through the layer-by-layer interpretation of " suspense problem" so as to realize the direct attention to human nature. Psychobiography regards life story and psychological experience as analogies of text on the methodological level and interprets life story. From the perspective of hermeneutics, the hermeneutic process is not only a process of using hermeneutic methods to explore the original meaning of the text and the original meaning of the author, but also a process of self-understanding and self-construction by the hermeneutics. This requires the interpreter to have a sense of autonomy to define his own existence. As for the method operation, the interpreter should not rigidly adhere to a certain method system, but should maintain an open attitude towards the method and enter the historical scene of the life story and psychological events of the preacher through the historical materials of the preacher, so as to reach a dialogue with the preacher for interpretation. Combined with the current research methods commonly used in psychobiographical studies, in the aspect of collecting biographical data, we can draw lessons from the historical sources of Chinese traditional empirical historiography and the long-compiled textual research methods to obtain full and true biographical data. In terms of research model, according to the personality adjective evaluation method in the mainland quality combination model, the adjective analysis is further introduced into the consideration dimension of historical change by referring to the method of concept history. On the mode of causal explanation, we should pay attention to the judgment conditions of causal mechanism and introduce the method of event sociology into causal explanation to expand the scope of psychological biographical explanation. In the application of theory, the theory is used as the basis of historical data inference, the reference of causal explanation and the clue of narration. The continuous development of psychological biographies will provide new vitality for the development of psychology. First of all, at the level of psychological theory, the research results of psychological biographies can help other researchers find the blind spots of existing psychological achievements and further promote the perfection of psychological theory. Secondly, in the aspect of popular science of psychology, it can also promote the research results of psychology to the public in a way that is closer to the public and more acceptable to the public. Finally, the study of psychological biographies of special characters also demarcates the boundaries of human nature and reveals the spiritual strength of human beings with exemplary, brilliant or dark side, so as to stimulate human potential and resist the dark side of human nature.
2019 Vol.  (2): 506-511 [Abstract] ( 2 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 335KB] ( 89 )
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