心理科学 2018, (3) 546-552 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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本文关键词相关文章
气质努力控制
神经基础
外侧前额叶
前扣带回
执行功能
本文作者相关文章
郭娜娜
吴国榕
毕明华
邱江*
PubMed
Article by Guo,N.N
Article by Wu,G.R
Article by Bi,M.H
Article by Qiu,J.*
努力控制及其神经基础
郭娜娜,吴国榕,毕明华,邱江*
西南大学
摘要: 本文对努力控制的概念、发展及其神经基础进行了归纳和总结。我们发现努力控制涉及的脑区主要包括背外侧和腹外侧前额叶,前扣带回,顶上和顶下小叶以及辅助运动皮层等。此外,通过分析对比后发现努力控制与执行功能之间在行为表现和神经基础上有密切关系:两者都与个体的学业成绩、情绪状态和攻击行为等有关;努力控制涉及的脑区有很大部分处于具有执行功能的突显网络和额顶控制网络。这些证据表明两者之间可能有共同的脑结构基础。
关键词气质努力控制   神经基础   外侧前额叶   前扣带回   执行功能  
Temperament Effortful Control and the Neuroanatomical Basis of It
Abstract: Effectively controlling the thoughts and behaviors is crucial for one’s study and work. This capacity can be evaluated using temperament effortful control (EC). EC is defined as “the efficiency of executive attention, including the ability to inhibit a dominant response and/or to activate a subdominant response, to plan, and to detect errors”. EC includes the abilities to voluntarily manage attention and to inhibit or activate behaviors as needed to adapt, especially when people does not want to do so. It is well established that EC includes three sub-dimensions, i.e., inhibitory control, activation control and attention control. Inhibitory control is the capacity to inhibit inappropriate behaviors. Activation control is the capacity to perform an action when there is a strong tendency to avoid it. Attention control is the capacity to focus attention as well as to shift attention when desired. EC reflects the ability to regulate behaviors in accordance with surroundings. Behavioral studies have linked effortful control to children's?academic achievement, interpersonal relationship and aggressive behaviors. EC develops rapidly during the infant and preschool years. Functional neuroimaging studies have discovered that EC is associated with the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and prefrontal cortical (PFC) during performing cognitive tasks. Structural imaging studies have revealed a relationship between EC and the PFC maturation during adolescence, and found that EC is positively related to the dorsal ACC volume. However, previous findings on the neural bases of EC are inconsistent and few studies have been conducted to review EC and its neural basis. This?study reviewed?former?research?about EC,including the concepts and development of EC, as well as its neuroanatomical basis. In addition, we discussed the relationship between EC and executive function. The results?have showed?that EC?and?executive function?are?both?related?to?individual?performance?on?executive?control?tasks,?such?as Stroop?task,?working?memory?task?and?spatial? conflict?task.? Besides,?brain?areas?related?to?EC?are?primarily located? in?salience ?network? and?fronto-parietal?network, including the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parietal lobe and supplemental motor area. It is well known that these areas mediate? the?neural bases?of?executive? function, suggesting that EC and executive function might share common neuroanatomical bases, and salience?network?and?frontal ?parietal ?network are the neuroanatomical basis of EC. Given that little is known about the neural basis of EC, this study has provided a detailed and in-depth review on EC, which helps us create a specific and systematic understanding of EC.
Keywords: temperament effortful control   neuroanatomical basis   lateral prefrontal cortical   anterior cingulate cortex   executive function  
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通讯作者: 吴国榕
作者简介:
作者Email: GuorongWu@swu.edu.cn

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