20 March 2022, Volume 45 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails

The Differences and Neural Mechanisms of the Attention Network of Different Neural Types
Xin-Guang SHI
2022, 45(2): 258-267. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Pavlov proposed the theory of higher nervous activity, and divided the neural types of humans and animals into four types. Different types of individuals have different behavioral performances and cognitive processing characteristics. At present, most of the researches on neural types and attention are behavioral experiments, the neural mechanisms of the differences in attention processing of different neural types is not clear. Therefore, this study focuses on the neural mechanism of attention processing of different neural types by using event-related potentials technique (ERPs). Before the normal experiments, 1263 college students were tested using 80.8 Neural Type Test Scale, each 15 students for flexible type, quiet type, excitatory type and inhibitory type were randomly selected from the subjects(a student of flexible type did not complete all the experimental tasks) .The 59 subjects engaged and finished 3 tasks, the first was the alerting task, the second was orienting task, and the last was executive control task, the behavioral data and ERP data in 3 tasks were recorded and analyzed. Behavioral results showed that: 1) in alerting task, the main effect of cues was significant(p < .001) , the reaction time under neutral cue condition was significantly faster than no cue condition, there was no significant difference in the alerting effect between the four groups(RTno cue – RTdouble cue); 2) in orienting task, the reaction time under valid cue conditions was faster than invalid cue(p < .001), there was no significant difference in orienting effect between the four groups(RTinvalid cue – RTvalid cue); 3) in executive control task, the response was significantly faster under the condition of consistent cues than that of inconsistent cues (p < .001), there was no significant difference in executive control effect(RTdifficulty cue – RT simple cue) between the four groups either. The ERP results showed that: 1) the N1 amplitudes of quiet type subjects in alerting processing were significantly higher than excitatory type and inhibitory type subjects, and orienting processing were significantly higher than that of the other three types; 2) The difficulty effect size (the N2 difference between difficulty and simple situations) of N2 in executive control processing was significant bigger in the flexible type than the other types; 3) There was no significant difference in the difficulty effect size(the P3 difference between difficulty and simple situations) of P3 amplitude between neural types, however, P3 amplitude of excitatory type was bigger than inhibitory type. In conclusion, the present study found that there were no significant differences between subjects with different neural types in the alerting, orienting and executive control effects of attention. For the ERP results, 1) quiet type subjects were more alert to non-oriented stimulation of space, and better directed attention toward unilateral spatial cues; 2) the difficulty effect size of N2 amplitude between quiet type and other types suggested that the flexible types had stronger conflict detection efficiency, flexible subjects were faster in conflict detection than other neural types; 3)there was no different in the difficulty effect size (the P3 difference between difficulty and simple situations) of p3 indicated that there was no difference in conflict resolution between four types, P3 amplitude of excitatory type was bigger than inhibitory type meant that the inhibitory type may recruit more cognitive resources to solve conflict inference relative to the excitatory type.
Related Articles | Metrics
Implicit Reappraisal Modulates the Response to Unpleasant Pictures: An ERP Study
2022, 45(2): 268-276. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Emotion regulation can be achieved through a number of processes. Implicit/automatic emotional regulation is a widely used form of emotion regulation. Studies have shown that implicit emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal can reduce the intensity of negative experience and brain activity sensitive to emotional salience. However, the time course of implicit reappraisal-related neural modulation remains unclear. It is unknown whether implicit reappraisal conditions before picture onset elicit attentional orienting towards and anticipation of impending stimuli. To fill this gap in the field, we examined the electrocortical response to unpleasant pictures during the implicit reappraisal condition, the modulation’s time processing, and the physiological changes elicited by instruction cues. In this study, a total of 20 participants were recruited. The implicit reappraisal strategy by giving them precedent descriptions was used to attenuate the emotional impact of unpleasant pictures. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants passively viewed neutral, unpleasant, and reappraised the unpleasant pictures. Late positive potential (LPP) is a positive-going ERP that begins parietally 200 ms following stimulus onset. The LPP is related to attentional processing to stimuli with motivational significance, which is larger following the presentation of emotional compared to neutral visual stimuli. Stimuli-preceding negativity (SPN) is a negative slow-wave that grows with anticipation of an impending feedback stimulus. The SPN is believed to reflect attentional orienting towards and anticipation of impending stimuli. We focus on these two ERP components to examine the differences between passively viewed neutral pictures, passively viewed unpleasant pictures, and implicitly reappraised before the view of the unpleasant pictures. The main goal of the present study was to investigate whether an “implicit reappraisal strategy” would modulate the LPP and SPN associated with unpleasant picture viewing. The result shows that the LPP was enhanced for unpleasant pictures in the passive viewing block. The implicit reappraisal resulted in a reliably reduced LPP—a protracted modulation that began 500 ms after stimulus onset, continuing the process of the whole picture presented. We also sought to ensure that there were no observable differences between the passively viewed and implicit reappraisal conditions before picture onset by analyzing ERPs during the presentation of the instruction cue. In particular, we examined the frontally maximal stimulus-preceding negativity ERP component during the cueing window (the 2000 ms window in which subjects saw a cue to either View, Watch, or Descriptions). The result also showed that the implicit reappraisal instruction cue before picture onset do elicit attentional orienting towards and anticipation of impending stimuli. The present study supported conclusions from other papers that implicit reappraisal can reduce the emotional response to unpleasant stimuli. The results of this study help people understand the time-processing process of implicit reappraisal strategies, and have important guiding significance for the clinical intervention of implicit emotion regulation. Since emotional regulation deficits are associated with mental and personality disorders, research on implicit emotion regulation is essential for clinical subjects (such as anxious individuals) who cannot reduce negative emotions and frequently use ineffective emotion regulation strategies. Therefore, future research should focus more on investigating the difference in implicit reappraisal strategies between healthy subjects and clinical subjects.
Related Articles | Metrics
Focality influences the processing of emotional cues in prospective memory: an ERP study
2022, 45(2): 277-286. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to perform a delayed intention. In a classical event-based PM paradigm, individuals engage in an ongoing task and simultaneously remember to accomplish a previously encoded intention when the PM cue (associated with that intention) occurs. Focal and non-focal PM tasks differ in the extent to which the ongoing task encourages the processing of the PM cue features. A lot of studies have focused on the influence of emotional cues on prospective memory. However, the results of these studies are contradictory and it is not clear when or how emotion influences prospective memory. By reviewing the previous studies, we found focality of PM task was likely to be a mediator. We supposed the performance of PM task depended on whether the processing patterns in focal and non-focal PM tasks were consistent with the ways in which individuals processed emotional information. In general, negative information associated with increased engagement of perceptual processes, and positive information leading to enhanced recruitment of conceptual processes. If the processing way of the emotional cues was consistent with that in PM task, emotional cues would facilitate the PM. If there was an inconsistency, emotional cues would impair the PM. We conducted two ERP experiments to verify this hypothesis. In both experiments, the ongoing task was a one-back working memory task using neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures as stimuli. Each experiment was composed of three PM sessions, which varied for the emotional valence of the PM cue (pleasant, unpleasant, neutral). Experiment 1 was a focal task, and participants were asked to quickly press the PM key immediately after making the decision for the ongoing task, whenever a pre-specified picture occurred. Therefore, perceptual processing was required in Experiment 1. Experiment 2 was a non-focal task, and the conceptual processing was needed. Participants were asked to pressed the PM key, whenever a picture belonging to the same category as it in the encoding phase occurred. The behavioral results showed that focal task performance was significantly better than non-focal task in the accuracy, but there was no significant difference between the emotional cues and the neutral cues in the two tasks. When compared with the ERP elicited by pictures of ongoing task, the grand-averaged ERP elicited by PM cues were characterized by the typical modulations related to PM. More specifically, PM cues were found to elicit two positive components: the frontal positivity, which occurred between 220 and 450 ms after stimulus onset; and the parietal positivity, which occurred between 400 and 1000 ms. The early frontal positivity is considered to reflect the detection of the PM cue and is associated with more automatic processes. It was smaller for positive than neutral and negative cues in focal task. In contrast, the frontal positivity for positive cues was larger in non-focused task. The parietal positivity reflects the retrieval of the intention from memory and is associated with postretrieval monitoring processes and with coordination between PM and ongoing responses. For parietal positivity, it was smaller for negative than positive and neutral cues in focal task. In contrast, it was larger for negative cues in non-focal task. In conclusion, the results confirmed our hypothesis that the focality of PM task could modulate the effect of emotional cues on prospective memory. The influence of emotional cues on prospective memory may be critically tied to the way in which negative and positive information was processed.
Related Articles | Metrics
The effect of automatic emotion regulation goal on selective attention: Evidence from ERPs
2022, 45(2): 287-294. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Emotion regulation involves deliberate, voluntary regulation and automatic, involuntary regulation. Automatic emotion regulation has been characterized as an unconscious goal-driven modulation of emotions, without paying attention to the process of regulating or engaging in deliberate control. Previous studies showed that when goals or norms referring to emotion regulation were primed, goal-relevant response or behavior can be activated without awareness. However, it remains unclear about the neural mechanism underlying the unconscious emotion regulation goal. Previous studies found that subliminal goal priming could change goal related behaviors. Meanwhile, attention allocation was a basic processing during emotion regulation. Furthermore, behavioral research found that automatic emotion regulation could decrease attention allocation to negative stimulus. Thus the present study aimed to examine whether subliminal priming of emotion regulation goals could change attention allocation in response to threatening information, and whether the amplitude of dot-locked P3 in the dot probe task would be modulated. A 2 (priming condition: regulation group vs. control group) × 2 (the congruency of cue and target: congruent vs. incongruent) mixed experiment design was carried out. Forty college students aged 17-25 years with normal or corrected-to-normal vision were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to a regulation group (13 female, 21.75±1.92 years, 19-24 years) and a control group (14 female, M=20.35±2.13 years, 17-25 years). Participants in the regulation group were primed subliminally by emotion regulation goals. Participants in the control group were primed subliminally by the unrelated priming words. In the modified dot probe task, each trial started with a fixation cross in the middle of a computer screen for 500ms. Next, a priming word (describing an emotion regulation goal for the regulation group or an unrelated word for the control group) was presented for 20ms, preceded by a 100ms pre-mask stimulus and followed by a 100ms post-mask stimulus. Subsequently, a snake and a mushroom were presented simultaneously on either side of a fixation point for 500ms. Then, the stimuli disappeared from the screen and a dot target appeared in the location of one or the other picture. Participants were asked to respond to the dot target of a white point as quickly and accurately as possible by pressing F key = left and J key = right. The dot disappeared when the response was made. Then a 1000ms blank appeared after the response being finished. A total 144 experimental trials and 12 practice trials were used. EEG data were recorded and analyzed by NeuroScan system, we focused on the mean amplitudes of target-locked waveforms, including P1 during the time window of 80-140ms at the electrode of Oz, N2 during the time window of 260-340ms at the electrode of Fz, P3 during the time window of 300-500ms at the electrode of Pz. Priming (Between-subject factor, emotion regulation priming/ control priming group) × Congruency (Within-subject factor, congruent/ incongruent) mixed ANOVAs were conducted on reaction times and the mean amplitudes of P1, N2 and P3. Behavioral results showed that the interaction of group and congruency was significant. Reaction times of the incongruent condition were shorter than those of the congruent condition only in regulation priming condition. ERPs results showed that for the regulation priming group, the mean amplitude of P3 was larger in incongruent condition than in congruent condition. However, for the control priming group, the mean amplitude of P3 was smaller in the incongruent than the congruent condition. In addition, we found that the mean amplitude of N2 was larger in the incongruent than the congruent condition. The result of P1 showed no significant difference. These results suggest that subliminal priming of emotion regulation goal may attention withdrawal from fearful stimuli; further, increased posterior P3 in incongruent condition than in congruent condition may reflect the neural correlates of the subliminal regulation goal priming on the stage of attention.
Related Articles | Metrics
The modulatory effect of emotional valence of words on semantic satiation
Hong-Yan Liu
2022, 45(2): 295-305. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
The semantic satiation effect refers to the subjective and temporary loss of the meaning to repeatedly perceived or produced word. Using a modified speeded category matching paradigm, the present study investigated the modulatory effect of words’ emotional valence on the time course of semantic satiation. With 24 adult participants, Experiment 1 found that, reaction times in the repeated condition were significantly shorter than those in the nonrepeated condition during the first time period (trials 2-4), whereas no significant difference was found during the second time period (trials 5-7) and the third time period (trials 8-10). These results demonstrated that, the above-mentioned paradigm could be used to successfully induce the semantic satiation effect. In Experiment 2, seventy-two adult participants were randomly assigned to three groups (24 per group) who were administered the paradigm using either positive or neutral or negative words. Results showed that, the semantic satiation effect appeared in later trials (trials 8-10) for positive words, and in middle trials (trials 5-7) for neutral words; while no significant semantic satiation effect was found for negative words. Results are discussed in terms of the depth of processing and evolutionary significance of emotional valence of stimuli (including words). Our findings suggest that the emotional valence of the materials should be considered in future studies of the semantic satiation effect.
Related Articles | Metrics
Measures of knowledge structure in reading comprehension
2022, 45(2): 306-314. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Reading comprehension is a complex process, in which text content information interrelates with readers' prior structural knowledge to form an integrated understanding of the text. Knowledge structure (KS) is an appropriate organization of text information. Using available measures, mainly computer-based technologies developed in the last two decades, researchers have shown that knowledge structure distinctly affects several cognitive processing outcomes, including reading comprehension scores of new texts, second language learning, and performance in problem-solving. In the present report, we introduced some key methods which were widely used in recent years. In the literature, summary essays, concept maps, the scores of pair-wise task, list-wise task, and sorting task, combined with eye-tracking and fMRI data, were considered as indexes of KS, and researchers have formalized how to transform all these various kinds of data into readable and comparable measures. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) developed in the 1990s is one related measure that is based on the underlying structure of the content that is distributed across many documents. LSA establishes a high-dimensional semantic space consisting of associations of words using the computationally demanding singular value decomposition of a large document by terms matrix (based on thousands of documents). In this way, similarity among different texts and between terms in texts is established as the cosine between their vectors in that semantic space. However, the matrix needed in LSA is so large that it takes extensive computing power to create it, so some researchers have turned to more efficient approaches such as SMD (Surface, Matching, Deep Structure) and T-MITOCAR (Text-Model Inspection Trace of Concepts and Relations). The measurements in both SMD and T-MITOCAR can be regarded as Schema structure analysis. SMD is used to analyze concept maps, whereas T-MITOCAR is an adaptation of SMD that can be used to analyze essays. Researchers who prefer using SMD and T-MITOCAR hold that knowledge is usually organized and stored as hierarchical structures or networks in human memory. Under SMD or T-MITOCAR, mental models could be indirectly measured. Analysis of lexical aggregates (ALA) is another alternative method that can be used to investigate knowledge structure from essays. Different from T-MOTICAR, ALA emphasizes the proximity/adjacency of different nodes rather than term-term distance. After obtaining a matrix of data based on preselected keywords from ALA-Reader, the matrix is then analyzed using Pathfinder network analysis to obtain a PFNet (i.e., a kind of graphical representation of KS) that can be used to compare the similarity of each network to a benchmark referent. Generally, results received via ALA are more intuitively displayed than those received via other methods. Generally speaking, both Schema structure analysis and Analysis of lexical aggregates are easy to use and can provide various information. Such network approaches provide new ways to measure and describe learning and behavioral performance, and so researchers are committed to improving the functions of these technologies. For example, AKOVIA (Automated Knowledge Visualization and Assessment; developed version of T-MITOCAR) and GIKS (Graphical Interface of Knowledge Structure; developed version of ALA-Reader) are available now on an internet platform, which can provide immediate visual feedback (as concept map) of student’s essay writing. However, improvements are still required, and suggestions were proposed at the end of the current report.
Related Articles | Metrics
The Effect of Family Socioeconomic Status on Preschool Migrant Children’s Problem Behaviors: The Chain Mediating Role of Family Resilience and Child-Parent Relationship
2022, 45(2): 315-322. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
In recent years, with the rapid development of China's economy and the acceleration of urbanization, the scale of the migrant population has been expanding continuously. Among them, the number of preschool children aged between zero and five years is huge and increases year by year. However, the current domestic studies of migrant children focus mainly on children in compulsory education, and the empirical research on migrant preschool children is extremely scarce. Therefore, current research needs to be improved in the following areas: pay attention to the group of migrant preschool children, carry out research related to psychological development and education, and explore the development characteristics and underlying mechanisms of migrant preschool children. According to the Family Stress Model, family financial difficulties foreshadow greater financial stress for parents, which can lead to a range of emotional distress, such as parental depression, anxiety, etc., further family conflicts, as well as harsh and low-warm parenting styles, and eventually lead to the internalization and externalization problem behaviors of children. Therefore, a key feature of FSM is to recognize that socioeconomic disadvantage affects children's development through the negative effects on variables such as child-parent relationship and family resilience. Based on Family Stress Models, Ecological Systems Theory, and Family Systems Theory, 428 migrant preschool children and their parents from 19 kindergartens completed the Family Socioeconomic Status Assessment, the Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale, the Child-Parent Relationship Scale, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results showed that: (1) family socioeconomic status was significantly correlated with problem behaviors (2) family resilience and child-parent relationship played significant mediating roles between family socioeconomic status and problem behaviors. Specifically, there were three paths that family socioeconomic status to influence problem behaviors: one was the mediating role of family resilience; the second was the mediating role of child-parent relationship; the third was the chain-mediated role of both family resilience and child-parent relationship. In all, the present study focuses on migrant preschool children and confirms the independent and chain mediating effects of family resilience and child-parent relationship between family socioeconomic status and migrant preschool children’s problem behaviors. At the same time, it is found that the mechanism of family socioeconomic status on internalization and externalization of migrant preschool children is different, which needs to be considered separately in future research and intervention. In view of the fact that the family socioeconomic status is not easy to change, it is necessary to pay attention to and improve the family resilience and child-parent relationship to avoid the cumulative risk for the development of migrant preschool children. This study enriches the research results in the field of problem behaviors and provides a theoretical basis for the prevention and intervention of migrant preschool children’s problem behaviors.
Related Articles | Metrics
Course Experience Improving Social Participation Competencies: A Chain Mediation Analysis
2022, 45(2): 323-330. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Social participation competencies is a part of core competencies. To develop students’ social participation competencies refers to the project to develop the necessary qualities and key capacities of students in the life-long sense of development required by society. For teenagers, learning characteristic courses which aimed at cultivating social participation competencies is an important way to enhance the attitude and abilities of social participation. And examining the effectiveness of the courses is the key to cultivate social participation competencies. A high school in Shanghai offers characteristic courses of social participation competencies for the whole school which provides a vivid sample for this study. Therefore, this study adopts the school-based research paradigm and takes a high school in Shanghai as a sample to explore the specific mechanism of emotional experience (quality) and public service motivation between the number of characteristic courses studied (quantity) and social participation competencies. A total of 1115 students participated in this survey. There were 528 males and 587 females. They filled out questionnaires regarding course experience, public service motivation and social participation competencies. All of the measures showed good reliability and validity. Among them, the questionnaire of social participation competencies which covered two questionnaires of altruistic behavior and leadership. We analyzed the second order factors, the results showed that the model fitted well (χ2 /df=11.58,NFI=.87, IFI=.88, CFI=.88, RMSEA=.09). Data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 and PROCESS. Results showed there was no obvious common methods bias using the confirmatory factor analysis. The Process plug-ins was used to analyze the chain mediating effect of emotional experience and public service motivation. The results indicated that (1) there was a statistically significant positive relationship between the number of characteristic courses studied and emotional experience(r = .08, p < .05), the number of characteristic courses studied and public service motivation(r = .10, p < .05), the number of characteristic courses studied and social participation competencies(r = .19, p < .01). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant positive relationship between emotional experience and public service motivation(r = .37, p < .01), emotional experience and social participation competencies(r = .29, p < .01). In addition, there was a statistically significant positive relationship between public service motivation and social participation competencies(r = .68, p < .01). (2) Emotional experience and public service motivation played a fully mediating role in the relationship between the quantity and social participation competencies. The chain mediating effect accounted for 5.72% of the total effect, 95% CI: [.00, .12]. (3) Academic achievement did not play a moderating role in the chain mediation. These findings suggest that learning characteristic courses can improve students’ social participation competencies. At the same time, emotional experience and public service motivation play an important role in this process. The learning of characteristic courses of social participation competencies requires the accumulation of courses and the mobilization of the deep emotional experience, so as to promote the promotion of public service motivation, and provide the cognitive source, emotional source and power source for the formation of social participation competencies.
Related Articles | Metrics
The Influences of Affect Labeling Based on Daily Events on Older Adults’ Subjective Life Quality
2022, 45(2): 331-338. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Currently, the aging of population has become a common social problem. Emotion is an influential factor in the life quality for older people. Many studies have shown that affect labeling task can effectively improve the individual emotional experience. The present study proposes an online affect labeling task based on daily events and aims to improve the subjective life quality of older adults by promoting their emotional experience. A total of 232 older adults from Xi’an fill out the Subjective Well-being Scale. The participants whose life satisfaction and positive emotion scores were lower than the average and negative emotion score was higher than the average, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 28) and the control group (n = 20). The intervention lasted two weeks. The intervention tasks included the emotional event reporting task and emotional labeling task. In the emotional event reporting task, the participants were asked to report an impressive daily life event which had a strong emotional response within 24 hours. In the affect labeling task, the participants needed to recall and re-experience the reported event and label their emotional experience using an emotional recording sheet. The intervention group had to complete the emotional event reporting task and the affect labeling task, while the control group only needed to complete the emotional event reporting task. After giving informed consent, the Subjective Well-being Scale and Emotional Ability Profile Scale were used to measure the older adults’ subjective well-being and emotional competence. We collected the older adults’ daily emotional experience by the experience sampling method. Using Mplus7.0 and R 3.3.3, the sampling data during 14 days were calculated to the emotional experience indexes, such as emotional stability and emotional complexity. We used SPSS 26.0 to compare the scores of the intervention group and control group in pre-test and post-test. To investigate the validity of the affect labeling task, covariance analysis was used to compare the scores of the intervention group and control group in post-test. The results showed that: (1) The identification of own emotions and understanding of own emotions for the intervention group were significantly higher than those for the control group; (2) The positive affect and subjective well-being for the intervention group were significantly higher than those for the control group, while negative affect for the intervention group was significantly lower than that for the control group; (3) In the daily emotional experience, the intensity of negative emotions for the intervention group was significantly lower than that for the control group, the mixed emotion for the intervention group was significantly lower than that for the control group, the mean square successive difference of negative emotion for the intervention group was significantly lower than that for the control group. These results indicated that the affect labeling task based on daily events can improve the identification of own emotions and the understanding of own emotions, can improve the older adults’ daily emotional experience effectively. Therefore, the affect labeling task can enhance older adults’ subjective life quality. In addition, the daily experience sampling method used in the present study can reduce participants' recall bias, improve the accuracy of the results, and the ecological validity of the research.
Related Articles | Metrics
The Influence of Father’s Co-Parenting on The Problem Behaviors of Left-Behind Children: a Chain Mediating Model of Paternal Attachment and Self-Esteem
2022, 45(2): 339-346. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
With the rapid development of China’s economy, a large number of farmers have gone to cities to work in order to improve their family’s economic conditions. Their children were forced to be separated from their parents and stay in the countryside to become left-behind children. Due to lack of parental upbringing, they fail to form a high-level parent-child attachment. Therefore, compared with non-left-behind children, left-behind children were more likely to have problem behaviors. According to the Social Psychological Model of Problem Behavior, the study of problem behaviors should consider both external environmental factors and individual internal factors. In addition to co-parenting and parent-child attachment, the factors of left-behind children themselves are also closely related to their problem behaviors. Therefore, based on the Social Psychological Model of Problem Behavior, our study aimed to explore the influence of paternal co-parenting on the problem behaviors of left-behind children and the mediating effect of paternal attachment and self-esteem. A total of 613 left-behind children were investigated from Anhui province. With the consent of the school, parents, and students, the students completed the Paternal Co-parenting Questionnaire, Father-child Attachment Questionnaire, Self-Esteem Scale, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The average age of these left-behind children was 9.63 ± 0.92, there were 400 male students, 213 female students, 308 belonging to the “father-absent” group, accounting for 50.20%, and 250 belonging to the “parents absent” group, accounting for 40.80%. The data were analyzed using correlation analysis, structural equation modeling by SPSS25.0 and Mplus 8.3. Correlation analysis showed that positive paternal co-parenting was positively related with paternal attachment and self-esteem, but not significantly correlated with problem behaviors; negative paternal co-parenting was negatively correlated with self-esteem, positively correlated with problem behaviors, paternal attachment, and self-esteem, but not significantly correlated with paternal attachment. The results of the structural equation model showed that the positive co-parenting of fathers significantly negatively predicted the problem behaviors of left-behind children, while the negative co-parenting of fathers significantly positively predicted the problem behaviors of left-behind children. Father-child attachment played an insignificant role in the mediation between the co-parenting of fathers and the problem behaviors of left-behind children, while self-esteem played a significant role in the mediation between the co-parenting of fathers and the problem behaviors of left-behind children. Father-child attachment and self-esteem played a chain role in the mediation between the co-parenting of fathers and the problem behaviors of left-behind children. This result shows that even in left-behind families where fathers are mainly absent, the role of fathers is still irreplaceable. At the same time, it also suggests that we should not only pay more attention to the problem behaviors of left-behind children but also focus on the positive quality of left-behind children themselves. Reducing the problem behaviors of left-behind children does not mean promoting their positive development. Therefore, it is equally important to improve the self-esteem of left-behind children. It also supports the left-behind children in a new perspective of both “reducing problems” and “promoting development”, so that left-behind children can develop actively even in an unfavorable environment.
Related Articles | Metrics
The Relationships Among Different Mathematical Skills and PASS Cognitive Processes of Pupils: One Year Cross-Lagged Regression Analysis
Jia-Yun LIU Dan CAI
2022, 45(2): 347-355. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
As a model of cognitive function, PASS has redefined intelligence in terms of four kinds of competence: planning, attention, simultaneous, and successive cognitive processes. Previous studies showed the close connection between PASS and mathematics learning. However, most of these were cross-sectional studies, and the developmental relationship between PASS and mathematical skills is not yet clear. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships among different components of PASS and different mathematical skills (numerical operation and math problem-solving) of pupils. One hundred and forty-nine children of grade one and two from a primary school in Shanghai (81 boys and 68 girls; mean age = 92.18 months, SD = 6.86 months) were followed for one year, and were assessed on the PASS processes, numerical operation, and math problem-solving. The cognitive processes were assessed by tasks from the Cognitive Assessment System-2 (CAS-2). Numerical operation task was adopted from Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Third edition (WIAT-III) and math problem-solving was assessed with the math standard achievement test (MSAT). The results showed that: (a) attention (receptive and expressive attention: F (1,143) = 112.59, p < .001, ηp2 = .44; F (1,144) = 43.51, p < .001, ηp2 = .23), planning (F (1, 148) = 407.67, p < .001, ηp2 = .73), simultaneous(F (1,148) = 16.41, p < .001, ηp2 = .10), successive processes( number and word series: F (1,147) = 50.61, p < .001, ηp2 = .26; F (1,148) = 65.32, p < .001, ηp2 = .31), numerical operation (F (1,145) = 276.34, p < .001, ηp2 = .66) and math problem-solving (F (1,145) = 194.12, p < .001, ηp2 = .57) improved significantly within one year. (b) The Pearson Correlations between PASS and mathematical skills (numerical operation and math problem-solving) showed significant correlations between these variables and a significant stability for these cognitive processes and mathematical skills. (c) Cross-lagged regression analysis showed that, after controlling for working memory and processing speed, attention and planning both had significant reciprocal relationships with numerical operation skill within one year. There is no reciprocal relation among attention, successive processes and math problem-solving skill, but planning and simultaneous processes both had significant reciprocal relationships with math problem-solving skill. These findings indicated that the different components of PASS at the lower-grade of elementary stage had inconsistent longitudinal relationships with mathematical skills of various complexity, and that higher-level cognitive processes had closer developmental connection with complex mathematical skills. This article explored the specific cognitive processes corresponding to different mathematics tasks, and provided some theoretical basis for improving the pertinence of mathematics learning of lower grade pupils. At the beginning stage of primary school, basic cognitive processes lay the foundation for mathematics learning. With the trend of mathematics tasks changing from simple to complex, more attention should be paid to the development of children's high-level cognitive processes to further promote mathematics learning.
Related Articles | Metrics
The effect of mixed age education on creative personality of 3-4 young children: the moderating effect of temperament
2022, 45(2): 356-363. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Creative personality refers to the stable and integrated personality traits displayed by individuals when they perform creative activities. The early childhood stage is a critical period for the development of creative personality. In order to explore the influence of mixed-age education and temperament on children’s creative personality, this study used questionnaires to track 238 3-year-old and 4-year-old children for one year, including 134 in the mixed age group and 104 in the non-mixed age group. They were 3 years old (3 to 3.6 years old, M = 3.1, SD = 1.36) and 4 years old (4 to 4.6 years old, M = 4.3, SD = 1.85). The results of the study showed that: (1) Through the independent sample T test, it was found that the scores of creative personality of mixed-age education and non-mixed-age education in the first test were not significantly different (p > .05); the creative personality scores in the second test were different in some dimensions Significantly. The independence scores of mixed-age educated children are higher than those of non-mixed-age children (p < .05); the curiosity scores of mixed-age educated children are higher than those of non-mixed-age educated children (p < .01); The scores of cooperation, self-confidence, aesthetics, and total score were significantly higher than those of non-mixed-age educated children (p < .001); there was no significant difference in gender between the two tests. (2) Compare the creative personality of the mixed-age educated children in the two tests, the novelty, independence, sense of accomplishment, cooperation, self-confidence, sensitivity, curiosity, sense of humor and creative personality in the second test The total scores were significantly higher than the scores in the first test (p < .001); a comparison of the creative personality of non-mixed-age educational children in the two tests showed that the second test was novel, independent, and sensitive The total scores of sex, curiosity, sense of humor, and creative personality were significantly higher than the first test score (p < .001). The scores of cooperation and self-confidence in the second test were higher than those in the first test (p < .01). (3) Mixed-age education is significantly positively correlated with sense of accomplishment, cooperation, sensitivity, curiosity, aesthetics, and creative personality (p < .05); temperament and emotional are related to sense of accomplishment, cooperation, sensitivity, Curiosity, aesthetics, sense of humor and creative personality are significantly positively correlated (p < .05); temperament activity and sense of humor are significantly negatively correlated (p < .01); temperament social inhibition and sense of accomplishment, sensitivity, Curiosity, aesthetics, and total scores of creative personality were significantly negatively correlated (p < .05); temperament responsiveness and concentration were not significantly correlated with creative personality dimensions and total scores (p < .05). (4) Temperament, emotion, activity and reactivity play a moderating role in the relationship between mixed-age education and children's creative personality (p < .001). Research suggests that mixed-age education has an impact on children's creative personality, which is regulated by temperament, emotional, activity, social inhibition and reactivity. This conclusion is conducive to promoting the development of children's creative personality.
Related Articles | Metrics
The Longitudinal Relationship between Parental Psychological Control and Problem Behaviors of Middle Childhood Children: The Mediating Roles of Paternal- and Maternal- Attachment
2022, 45(2): 364-371. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Children’s problem behaviors, which refer to behaviors that deviate from normal standards, including internalizing problems and externalizing problems, have received vast attention from the society and the academia for the past few years. Previous studies indicated that problem behaviors originating from early childhood have a continuous impact on individuals even when they are in adolescence or in adulthood, which will lead to more serious mental health problems or anti-social behaviors later. Compared with other grades, children show severer problem behaviors in middle childhood, which is a crucial period for children in elementary school to develop their self-awareness. Therefore, parental psychological control, a kind of excessive performance of parental upbringing, may greatly hinder the development of children’s independence and autonomy, resulting in children’s poor adaptation. The current study aimed to examine the association between parental psychological control and problem behaviors (internalizing and externalizing problems) of middle childhood children, and further to explore whether both paternal and maternal attachment would mediated the relations between parental psychological control and children’s problem behaviors. In addition, gender differences in the mechanisms were also discussed. 969 children (627 males, 342 female) who were in Grade 3 from three elementary schools in Anhui Province participated in the research. Among them, children aged from 9 to 10 take a large proportion. Using a longitudinal study, these children were asked to complete the Parental Control Questionnaire, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and Parent and Peer Attachment Questionnaire at two time points (spaced approximately 6 months apart). All the data were analyzed using SPSS Version 23.0 and Mplus Version 8.0. Firstly, descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were conducted with SPSS 23.0. Based on this, then, a structural equation model was established to examine the association among the key variables by using Mplus 8.0. The main results were as following: (1) both paternal and maternal psychological control could directly predict children’s problem behaviors, but paternal psychological control had a greater impact on externalizing problems while maternal psychological control showed a greater effect on internalizing problems; (2) paternal and maternal attachment mediated the relationship between parental psychological control and children’s problem behaviors; (3) paternal attachment only mediated the association between parental psychological control and boys’ problem behaviors whereas maternal attachment played a significant role among both boys and girls. The study sheds light on the associations among parental psychological control, parent-child attachment and problem behaviors of middle childhood children, deepening our understanding of children’s social adaptation related to parental negative upbringing and the potential mechanisms of parent-child relationships. The results in the current study support the self-determination theory, the attachment theory, the family system theory, and the specificity hypothesis, which provide new perspectives for intervention in children’s problem behaviors and future family education.
References | Related Articles | Metrics
The action mechanism of College Students' Online Music Perceived Value: Based on Structural Equation Mixed Model
Zi-Qing YE
2022, 45(2): 372-378. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
To explore the relationship between the reference group and purchasing behaviour of college students' online music perceived value. This study conducted a questionnaire survey among 2011 college students and completed the college students' online music perceived value scale, online music purchase intention scale and reference group influence scale. Data were collected and analyzed using Mplus 8.3 and SPSS 26.0 software. The model fitting shows that the mediation model fits well. The mixed structural equation model analyses the moderating effect of the potential types of online music perceived value of college students on the mediation model. The results show that there are apparent potential types of college students' online music perceived value. College students' online music perceived value is a partial intermediary between the influence of reference groups and purchasing intention, behaviour. The potential types of college students' online music perceived value moderated the mediation model. There was a moderating effect between the influence of the reference group on the purchase intention and the purchase intention on the purchase behaviour. In summary, this study builds a mixed structural equation model, aiming to reveal the effects of potential types of online music perceived value on online music purchasing intention and behaviour of college students. In addition, in future research, firstly, we need to pay more attention to the importance of individual-centred study and ignore individual differences. Secondly, only the influence of potential types of perceived value was analyzed in this study, and stable differences such as gender were not included in the analysis. Whether there is any influence on the relationship between reference group effect and purchase intention and behaviour needs to be further discussed. Then, future research also needs to focus on the relationship between purchase intention and purchase behaviour. This study only uses the existence of purchase experience to describe purchase behaviour, which requires further investigation. Finally, the subsequent research can discuss the changing trend of the perceived value of online music through longitudinal research design.
Related Articles | Metrics
Children's Selective Trust in the Perspectives of Dual-Process Model
2022, 45(2): 379-385. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Children understand the world through learning. But they cannot obtain knowledge only through direct observation. Such as ethics, morality, and religious beliefs, children need to obtain knowledge from others. But children are likely to be deceived or gain wrong knowledge if they trusted the information indiscriminately. Therefore, as one of the basic abilities required for children's learning, the selective trust could help children gain useful information and construct their cognitive world. Selective trust germinated in infancy and matured from toddler to childhood. Current research results showed that children's selective trust was a credulous and rational process. So, what was the true nature of children's selective learning? How to explain these inconsistent findings? What was the cognitive mechanism behind these inconsistencies? The dual-processing model of selective trust provided a new way for explaining the cognitive mechanism behind children's learning. A core point of the dual-processing model was that children use simple heuristic strategies to make default judgments in the early stages of development. However, as they grew up and their cognitive abilities developed, children's trust judgment strategies became more rational. The heuristic strategy was the Type I processing, and the rational processing strategy was the Type II processing. When Type II processing appeared, Type I processing would not disappear but still coexist with Type II processing in children's selective trust. When the Type I processing could not work, Type II processing would intervene and help children make rational choices. Unlike the dual-processing model in cognitive psychology, the character of the dual-processing model in selective trust was that, in selective trust, Type I processing was based on simple heuristic strategies and did not require specific ability and knowledge. Previous research raised that Type I process included at least two main strategies: general-trust heuristic and trust-the-better heuristic. We proposed a new strategy, associative heuristic. Under this heuristic, children only need to make trust judgments by associating surface features with information provider characteristics based on their observation of the information provider's previous behavior. Type II processing required children to use rational processing methods to compare and match the information providers' abilities and traits more accurately according to specific task requirements. Type II processing had two manifestations. The first aspect was that children could trust appropriate information providers based on the clues and specific task scenarios given when faced with a single trust clue. The second aspect was that children could overcome the interference of social cues and make trust judgments based on cognitive cues when faced with multiple trust cues. After reviewing the relevant studies, we proposed that the cognitive ability, the family environment, and the nature of the task would affect children how use the two processing strategies. In sum, based on introducing the dual-processing model, this article sorted out the credulity and rationality of children under different selective trust task situations, and discussed how to distinguish between Type I and Type II processing and what factors affect them. Discussing this model could help researchers understand the relevant results in children's selective trust and clarify the mechanism behind it, which can help researchers to better understand children's learning process.
Related Articles | Metrics
The Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Shyness
2022, 45(2): 386-393. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Related Articles | Metrics
Dynamics of nascent entrepreneurs' knowledge transferring after entrepreneurial training: a latent growth model
cirong LI Yan-Yu Yang Chun-Xuan LI
2022, 45(2): 394-401. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Nascent entrepreneurs often join entrepreneurial training to capture relative knowledge for venture survival. Nonetheless, in addition to capturing entrepreneurial knowledge, transferring entrepreneurial knowledge throughout whole venture process is more crucial for new venture development. Specifically, the keeping and growth of entrepreneurial transfer plays an important role in whole entrepreneurial process. However, no, if any, research has been done to explore how entrepreneurial knowledge transfer will continuously unfold over time. To address the gap, the study conducted six-wave repeated measures and investigated within-person variability in the transfer of entrepreneurial knowledge after entrepreneurial training. Following the self-regulation theory, the research theorizes and examines how entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and passion (EP) influence the dynamics of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer. Due to the time-varying nature of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and passion, the research also examined whether ESE and EP have differential short- and long-term impacts on the transfer of entrepreneurial knowledge. Furthermore, the study clarified the relationship between entrepreneurial knowledge transfer and venture progress since entrepreneurial knowledge has been shown to enhance venture progress. Our study collected data from 180 nascent entrepreneurs in eight incubators and used a six-wave longitudinal study over 18 months to examine the dynamics of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer. Of the nascent entrepreneurs, 35 percent were female, the average age was 31.07 years (SD = 2.67). After nascent entrepreneurs have joined entrepreneurial training over a period, the survey first measured their ESE and EP. And then, the study repeated measures their entrepreneurial knowledge transfer and new venture progress at each three months. Our study adopts the latent growth model to clarify the mean level and subsequent development of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer and examine how ESE and EP relate to the mean level and subsequent development. The study also examines how the subsequent development (the mean level) of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer influences the subsequent growth (the mean level) of new venture progress. The results showed that ESE was positively related to the subsequent development of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer (β = .04, p < .05), whereas there is no significant effect on the mean level (β = -.06,p > .05). On the other hand, EP was positively related to the mean level of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer (β = .16, p < .05), but there is no significant effect on the subsequent development of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer (β = -.02, p > .05). The finding also showed that the subsequent development of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer was positively related to subsequent growth of new venture progress (β = 1.25, p < .05); however, there is no significant relationship between the mean level of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer and the mean level of new venture progress (β = .47, p > .05). The research extended existing understanding by exploring the dynamics of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer after entrepreneurial training. Furthermore, the study provided a new insight regarding the differential effects of ESE and EP on entrepreneurial knowledge transfer by which future research should consider the time-varying nature of ESE and EP. Finally, departing from existing research that focused on student population, the study examined the temporal dynamics of entrepreneurial knowledge transfer in the nascent entrepreneur population, which can provide more practical implications.
Related Articles | Metrics
Differences in the Implicit Cognitive Processing of Altruistic Information among Residents with Different Levels of Sense of Community Responsibility
2022, 45(2): 402-408. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Sense of community responsibility as an attitude including cognition of self-responsibility to other people and relationships in the community, willingness to emotionally invest in the well-being and collective interests of others, and motivation to put one’s words into actions and accept the consequence of their actions. It has a positive relationship with altruistic behavior. Studies have found that both picture stimulation and vocabulary stimulation can trigger people's implicit altruistic effect. In comparison, the measurement of implicit altruism has higher ecological validity than the measurement of explicit altruism, and can effectively predict the rapid occurrence of altruistic behavior in real situations. At present, the relationship between sense of community responsibility and implicit altruism is not known, but its relationship is of great value for understanding the relationship between sense of community responsibility and altruistic behavior. Based on the dual system theory, this research aims to explore the relationship between implicit altruistic behavior and explicit altruism, as well as the difference in the level of sense of community responsibility of implicit altruistic behavior, so as from the perspective of implicit cognitive processing to explain the relationship between sense of community responsibility and individual altruistic behavior. With the implicit association test, two parallel experiments were conducted to explore the relationship between the level of sense of community responsibility and the implicit altruism of residents. 217 subjects participated in the experiments, of which 57 were males and 160 were females, aged from 18 to 50 years old. Results show that individuals have significant implicit altruistic self-concept evaluation effects and implicit altruistic attitude evaluation effects. Implicit altruism and explicit altruism are not significantly correlated. The level of sense of community responsibility and the implicit effect value are significant positive correlation. Regardless of the level of sense of community responsibility, the residents' response time to compatible tasks is less than that of the incompatible tasks. The IAT effect value of the high sense of community responsibility group is significantly greater than the low sense of community responsibility group. There are significant differences in the self-concept processing and attitude evaluation processing of altruistic words and non-altruistic words among individuals with different sense of community responsibilities. Individuals with a higher sense of community responsibility are more inclined to associate altruism with self and make positive evaluations, and associate non-altruism with others and make negative evaluations. Although this study verifies the relationship between sense of community responsibility and implicit altruism for the first time, there are still the following shortcomings. First, past studies have shown that picture stimulation can also trigger people's IAT effect, and words stimulate significantly correlated with the IAT effect of picture words. Therefore, future research can further verify the relationship between sense of community responsibility and implicit altruistic evaluation effects by adding altruistic pictures. Second, researchers believe that the intuition processing of implicit social cognition also involves rational processing. Therefore, future research can use the process dissociation procedure to analyze and compare the differences in the level of community responsibility between conscious and unconscious processing of altruistic information.
Related Articles | Metrics
The Effects of Collaboration on Rule-Based and Information-Integration Perceptual Category Learning
2022, 45(2): 409-416. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Collaboration is an indispensable activity in social groups, while category learning, as the basis of cognitive activity of understanding the world, is also inseparable from cooperation with others in reality. Hence the study of collaborative category learning is of greatly practical significance. According to a current theory of category learning——the COVIS model, there are at least two separate learning systems in category learning: one is the verbal system which is affected by working memory and executive attention, and the other is the implicit system which is separated from verbal system and will not be affected by executive function. We hypothesized that a collaborative approach based on verbal discussion and interaction would have different patterns of influence on these two kinds of learning systems. This study used the classic experimental material—Gabor for category learning. In order to explore whether difficulty affected the effect of collaboration on information integration learning, we set two decision-making difficulty levels: high and low. This study included 3 experiments of 2 (participant type: collaborative and individual group) x 2 (category structure: rule-based and information-integration) complete between-subjects design. Moreover, conjunctive rule was used in experiments instead of single-dimensional rule to control the interference of unequal difficulty between rule-based category structure and information-integration category structure on the learning effect. Experiment 1 was a low difficulty classification task, while Experiment 2a and 2b were in high difficulty. The Experiment 2a had the same procedure as the Experiment 1 where all the participants would accept an individual test after learning task. In Experiment 2b, a relearning stage where all the participants would study individually, was added on the basis of Experiment 2a so as to further explore the learning effect. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the accuracy of category learning in all experiments. The results showed that in Experiment 1 with low decision-making difficulty, collaboration significantly reduced rule-based learning performance (p<0.05), but did not significantly affect information integration learning. In Experiment 2a with high decision-making difficulty, collaboration showed no significant impact on learning. However, in the further exploration in relearning stage of Experiment 2b, the difference of accuracy rate between relearning stage and first learning stage was adopted as a more sensitive measurement index. The results indicated that collaboration would interfere with both two kinds of learning under the high decision-making difficulty (p<0.05). Combining the results of Experiment 2a and Experiment 2b, it was found that collaboration significantly inhibited rule-based and information-integration learning in high decision-making difficulty. Besides, participants’ metacognition were measured in the experiments, the results illustrated that the level of metacognition in rule-based category learning was higher than that of information integration category learning (p<0.05). This study reveals the role of collaboration in perceptual category learning. The findings show that collaboration has different influence patterns on two separate learning systems. Regardless of the difficulty of learning task, the performance of the rule-based category learning will decline under the condition of collaboration comparing to learning individually. As for the implicit learning system, the anti-interference of information integration learning is only shown in low decision-making difficulty, while in high difficulty, information integration learning is also inhibited by collaboration.
Related Articles | Metrics
The Influence of Time Constraint on Cooperation: A Moderated Chain Mediation Model
2022, 45(2): 425-432. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Cooperation means bringing benefits to others at the expense of one's own. However, this kind of cooperation is not the best strategy, so the research question of whether the cooperation strategy comes from intuition or thinking. The current research results on intuitive cooperation have not been conclusive, one of the reasons may be that the mechanism of intuitive cooperation is not clear. Therefore, this study proposed based on social heuristics hypothesis ( SHH ) , query theory and the public goods game, through two experimental investigation of time constraint of cooperation effect and mechanism of action. Firstly, we randomly selected 30 participants ( 15female, M±SD = 19.10±1.18 ) involved in no time constraint of cooperation and competition situation of the public goods game by measuring reaction time in the preliminary experiments. Time pressure was set to under 10s, and time delay was set to more than 10s. Then, we manipulated two different variables: experimental situation ( Cooperative situation vs. Competitive situation ) and time constraint ( Time pressure vs. Time delay ) in the first experiment. We used the contribution token task to measure the degree of cooperation and the reaction time. 120 undergraduates ( 94 female, M±SD = 18.88±.78 ) participated in the experiment. Next, we introduced the similarity perception and standardized mean rank difference ( SMRD ) to explore the mechanism in the second experiment. According to the query theory, individuals decompose problems into a series of inquiries when making decisions, and due to output interference, the information in the previous inquiry is larger and richer than the information in the latter, so the former inquiry has a greater impact on the decision. Specifically, the challenge asked participants to write down their thoughts in order at the time of the decision, followed by their contributions. 120 undergraduates ( 87 female, M±SD = 18.73±1.69 ) participated in the experiment. Finally, all experimental programs were developed and designed by E-prime program. The results showed that: ( 1 ) The main effect of time constraint was significant ( F ( 1, 116 ) = 22.75, p < .001, ηp2 = .16), the cooperation level under time pressure was significantly higher than time delay, and the shorter the reaction time, the higher the cooperation level ( t ( 118 ) = -2.52, β = -.23, p < .05, R2 = .05 ) . ( 2 ) The main effect of experimental situation was significant ( F ( 1, 116 ) = 3.68, p = .057, ηp2 = .03), and the level of cooperation in the cooperative situation was higher than competitive situation. ( 3 ) Similarity perception and SMRD respectively mediated the influence of time constraint on cooperative behavior, and time constraint could influence cooperative behavior through the chain mediation path of similarity perception and SMRD. ( 4 ) The mediating path and chain mediating path between time constraint and cooperative behavior were regulated by the experimental situation. Studies have shown that compared to the competition situation, the stronger the cooperation situation of individual time pressure, and the decision-making and the shorter the time, the higher the perceived similarities between with others, the easier it is to produce first altruism idea, so that people in heuristic thinking and performance for intuitive cooperation.
Related Articles | Metrics
Research on the Impact of Employees' Perceived Stress on Sleep Quality: moderating effect of mindfulness and Mediating effect of anxiety
2022, 45(2): 433-438. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Sleep is one of the basic physiological needs of human beings and plays a vital role in maintaining the various functions of the human body. But in recent years, with the rapid development of the market economy and the rapid development of social processes, sleep problems are puzzling more and more people. In the economic field, low-quality sleep not only harms the physical and mental health of employees, but also affects work performance, work safety, work attitude and so on. Previous drug treatments for sleep disorders are thought to be single and have side effects, while cognitive behavioral therapy is considered an effective treatment for insomnia. This study is also based on this status quo to explore the effect of relevant psychological factors on sleep quality, and through the conclusion of the study to improve the sleep quality of employees to provide psychological level of theoretical and methodological support. Many empirical studies have found that the level of perceived stress in individuals can negatively predict sleep quality, but previous studies have less explored the intermediary mechanism of perceived stress affecting the sleep quality of employees, and it is not clear how perceived stress affects sleep quality. According to studies, there is a strong link between stress, anxiety, and sleep quality. Therefore, this study will assume that anxiety acts as a mediator between perceived stress and employee sleep quality in an enterprise, thus clarifying the internal mechanism of perceived stress affecting employee sleep quality. At the same time, although perceived stress can have an important effect on sleep quality through direct or indirect action, this effect is not fixed, and there may be certain individual differences. The study found that the higher the trait mindfulness level, the better the individual's sleep quality, so this study assumes that positive mindfulness levels play a regulatory role in negatively predicting sleep quality by perceived stress. Chinese Perceived Stress Scale, CPSS, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, PSQI), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Mindfulness Awareness Scale (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS) were used in the study. A questionnaire survey of 420 employees of small and medium-sized enterprises in Chengdu. The results show that the stress of awareness is an important factor affecting sleep quality, which is consistent with previous studies. Anxiety is an important intermediary between the stress of awareness and the quality of sleep, and the stress of awareness cannot only directly affect the sleep quality of employees in enterprises, but also play an indirect role through anxiety. This study also found that mindfulness as a personal trait regulates the mediating role of anxiety between perceived stress and sleep quality, thereby regulating the effect of perceived stress on sleep quality, that is, mindfulness levels regulate the latter half of perceived stress, anxiety, as well as sleep quality. For groups with high levels of mindfulness, although anxiety has a significant negative predictive effect on the sleep quality of enterprise employees, the slope is small, which indicates that anxiety has less effect on sleep quality for groups with high levels of mindfulness. To sum up, this study constructs and examines a regulated mediating model, explores the internal mechanism between the stress of awareness and the sleep quality of employees, and clarifies that stress of awareness predicts the sleep quality of employees through anxiety. And the mindfulness level has a regulatory effect on this mediation path, and for employees with high mindfulness levels, anxiety has less effect on their sleep quality. When the employee's mindfulness level is high, it is able to maintain uncritical awareness of internal and external stimuli, thereby reducing impulsive emotional and behavioral responses and reducing mental regurgitation, thereby improving sleep quality. The research results will have important reference value for improving the sleep quality of employees.
Related Articles | Metrics
Pro Environment Behavior in Group: Based on the Perspective of Social Identity Process
2022, 45(2): 439-445. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Abstract In recent years, the development of urbanization and industrialization has produced many negative effects on ecosystem and human health, such as global warming, air pollution, environmental noise, urban garbage and biodiversity loss. Many researchers have conducted extensive research on pro environmental behavior from the perspectives of economics, sociology, psychology and anthropology. The pro environmental behavior involves not only the behavior of environmental protection in the personal field, but also the behavior of promoting environmental protection related issues by initiating or participating in environmental protection social organizations in the public field. At the same time, pro environmental behavior is also the behavior that individuals consciously show beneficial to the environment based on certain values, world outlook and sense of responsibility.The formation of Pro environmental behavior should be interpreted not only from the perspective of individual cognition, but also from the perspective of group cognition. Previous studies on pro environmental behavior mostly analyzed the causes and psychological mechanism of pro environmental behavior from the perspective of individual, and explained pro environmental behavior from the perspective of individual cognitive process. In real life, most of the environmental events originate from human group's non environmental behavior, and these environmental events have brought many negative effects on people's physical and mental development. Few studies explain the generation mechanism of pro environmental behavior from the perspective of social groups. Therefore, it is necessary to expand the previous theoretical framework of exploring pro environmental behavior only from the individual perspective, interpret pro environmental behavior from a broader group perspective, reveal the occurrence mechanism of pro environmental behavior at the group level, and carry out intervention guidance, which can not only enhance people's psychological explanation of effectively coping with global environmental events, but also promote people's positive environmental protection protect behavior and realize effective environmental governance.The environmental crisis caused by the destruction of ecological environment has posed a serious threat to the sustainable development of human society. Seeking positive environmental governance countermeasures, promoting people's pro environmental behavior, constructing the "co construction, sharing and co governance" environmental governance system, and improving the quality of human life have become the most urgent global social governance issues. Based on the two theoretical perspectives of pro environmental behavior, this paper introduces the social identity model of pro environmental behavior, and emphasizes to explore the generation mechanism of pro environmental behavior from the perspective of group social identity. Based on the in-depth discussion of the relationship between inner group identity, inner group norms and goals, collective efficacy, emotion and motivation and pro environmental behavior in the process of social identity, this paper puts forward a social psychological approach to promote pro environmental behavior, hoping to change the public's negative participation in environmental governance, promote people's pro environmental behavior, and promote the harmonious coexistence of human and environment coexistence development provides policy basis, but also provides a new governance path for global environmental governance.
Related Articles | Metrics
Social Class Influence on Betrayal Aversion and Generalized Trust
2022, 45(2): 446-453. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Trust is often described as a “social glue” in relationships, groups, and societies, in that it connects people and facilitates thoughts, motives, and behaviors that promote collective goals. However, trusting strangers is a risky decision because we know nothing about their reputations and trusting strangers may result in betrayal. Consequently, generalized trust is an important heuristic that people use to navigate numerous daily interactions with unknown others and it is a crucial characteristic of modern societies. Previous studies suggested that social class shapes our cognition process and behavior. There also have been an emerging body of research on social class and trust, but the results are inconsistent and conflicting. In order to address mixed results in the literature, two experiments were conducted to explore the causal relationship between subjective social class and generalized trust as well as betray aversion, controlling the objective social class. In Study 1, for the purpose of testing the effects of social class on general trust, 120 participants were randomly priming with upper or lower subjective social class though a task that have been validated in advance, then they play a trust game with some strangers (Study 1a) or conduct a face trustworthiness evaluation task (Study 1b). In Study 2, 159 participants were given the same social class priming, then they conduct a minimum acceptable probability task measuring the betray aversion (Study 2). The results of Study 1a shown that compared with the upper social class priming, participants reported lower subjective social class in lower social class priming condition, indicating successful manipulation of social class priming. More importantly, the priming of the lower social class decreased the generalized trust to strangers (invested less money) in the trust game. The results of Study 1b also verified the manipulation of social class priming, and found that the priming of the lower social class reduced perceived trustworthiness to strangers in the face trustworthiness evaluation task. In addition, in Study 2 we found that there were no significant differences between risk source in upper class priming condition but in lower class priming condition. To be more specific, the priming of the lower social class increased the sensitive to social risk, in turn, increased the level of betray aversion. In conclusion, the present results indicated that lower social class priming reduced individuals’ generalized trust and increased the level of betray aversion. Our results partly support and expand the socio-cognitive theory of social class, suggesting that lower class individuals are less able to resist risks and have stronger sense of social risk, which in turn shows a lower level of general trust in order to survive and achieve life goals, while upper class individuals are less affected by the source of risk whereas they are more likely to focus on self-interests. The results of this study have important theoretical significance in revealing how social class influences generalized trust and betray aversion, and provides scientific theory reference for government and enterprises to set relevant policies and raising the level of social trust in citizens.
Related Articles | Metrics
What kind of apology are more likely to be forgiven: the influence of different types of apology to trust repair
2022, 45(2): 454-461. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Related Articles | Metrics
The Impact of Danmaku on Mainstream Media Trust: The Perspective of User-Media Fit
2022, 45(2): 462-469. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
In the new media era, the mainstream media in our country confronts the pressing problem of how to develop and take advantage of external resources to fulfil its own transformation. From the perspective of user-media fit, the present research explored whether the new media technology Danmaku could promote mainstream media trust and its potential social psychological mechanisms. Through two experimental studies, we found the positive moderating effect of users’ need of affiliation on the relationship between Danmak and mainstream media trust, and confirmed the dual indirect paths of emotion (i.e., positive and negative emotion) and affect (the psychological distance between users and media), which depended on the typology of news. These findings suggest that we should value the importance of fit between media resources (including new media technology and news typology) and users’ psychological needs in the transformation of mainstream media in the new media era.
Related Articles | Metrics
A Non-parametric CD-CAT Selection Strategy Based on Ideal Response
2022, 45(2): 470-480. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Cognitive Diagnostic Adaptive Testing (CD-CAT) is featured with its Adaptive characteristics, and it is able to conduct Adaptive diagnosis and feedback on students' knowledge status.In today's personalized education, CD-CAT has a good development prospect and will play an important role in the future educational practice, so it has increasingly become a research hotspot at home and abroad.Topic selection strategy has always been one of the most concerned techniques in CD-CAT. Therefore, many researchers have put forward many topic selection strategies, such as KL, PWKL, SHE, MI and their variants.Most of these strategies are based on a certain amount of information and belong to the parameter category.Although the above parameter selection strategy has a good performance in the research, it also has the following shortcomings: First, in the process of building the question bank, a large number of questions in the test bank should be used in advance, and the test data should be used for parameter estimation, so as to ensure the accuracy of the parameter estimation.Such a large number of samples is not easy to realize in practice, especially in the course teaching.Second, the selection strategy of parameters is generally selected only for those topics with good quality, which will make the exposure rate of some topics too high and threaten the security of the question bank.Thirdly, the selected topic strategy models of parameters are complex, with large computational burden and difficult to understand. In recent years, researchers have developed a simple and effective non-parametric cognitive diagnosis method is suitable for small sample (HDD, EDD, MDD). Therefore, this study based on the thought of distance discriminant method, try to put aside the multifarious calculation formula and parameter estimation, based on the ideal answer, according to have title of each response is courtesy of model build different attributes control the distance weighting function, change numerous for brief, developed two kinds of suitable for hybrid scoring non-parametric CD - CAT DWIR and HDWIR topic selection strategy.The effects of DWIR and HDWIR were explored through two simulation studies. Study 1: Comparison was made between DWIR and HDWIR and selected topic strategies without exposure control (PS-KL and PS-PWKL).Study 2: Comparison between DWIR, HDWIR and selected topic strategy with exposure control.The results show that :(1)DWIR and HDWIR algorithms are simple and easy to understand, with few preconditions and easy to meet application conditions;(2)DWIR and HDWIR have wide applicability. They can be used not only for the topic selection of 01 scoring and multilevel scoring, but also for the parameter CD-CAT and non-parameter CD-CAT.(3) The attribute classification accuracy of DWIR and HDWIR is higher than that of the parameter selection strategy with exposure control, and the selection speed is faster.(4)DWIR and HDWIR have good exposure control effect, and the selection strategy is based on exposure control, so there is no need to add exposure control in the selection strategy to simplify the selection strategy.
Related Articles | Metrics
Attention bias to drug related cues of heroin abstainer: Evidence from eye movements
2022, 45(2): 481-490. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Heroin addiction is a kind of chronic functional encephalopathy, which is the dependence on the psychoactive substance and accompanied with a series of physiological changes, such as impairment of cognitive function, weakening of adaptability and so on. Drug-related cues refer to the environmental stimuli that coexist with drug use, such as drug, action and tool, to name a few. Drug related cue-induced reactivity is a typical manifestation of addictive behavior and research has demonstrated that the attention bias of heroin abstainer to related cues is an important factor in predicting their re-inhalation. However, there are few studies about the heroin abstainer’s attention bias and specific differentiation of related clues. Do heroin abstainers have some cognitive processing and attention bias for direct cues (e.g., heroin drugs) and indirect cues (e.g., tools and actions)? That’s the goal of the present study. Previous studies on heroin addiction mainly used Stroop or dot-probe paradigm to explore the attention bias of heroin abusers, and ignored the conflicts of heroin abusers to different drug clues. In current study, we used dot probe paradigm combing with eye tracking technology to explore the attentional bias of heroin abstainers under different drug related cues. The present study used eye tracking to measure attention biases in specific component processes of visual attention (i.e., time to first fixation, first fixation duration, total fixation duration and total fixation count). 25 heroin dependents recruited from a domestic drug rehabilitation center in this study. We excluded a participates who could not complete the study. The mean age of participates were 41.92 (SD=4.98) and the duration of heroin using was 17.71 years (SD = 4.80). We conducted a 4 (picture classification: drugs, tools, actions, neutral) × 2 (probe position: consistent, inconsistent) within subject design to investigate the cognitive processing of heroin abstainers. The cues materials were divided into drug clues and neutral picture (D - N), tools clues and neutral picture (T-N), action clues and neutral (A - N) and neutral picture and neutral picture (N - N). The subjects were asked to press different keys on the keyboard as quickly and accurately as possible in response to the presented stimulus. At the same time, a SMI RED 250 Desktop eye-tracker (SensoMotoric Instruments, Germany) was used to record the eye movement data. The results showed that heroin abstainers had different attention bias patterns to different heroin related clues. Response time showed that heroin abstainers avoided paying attention to drug pictures, while maintained attention to tool and action pictures. Eye movement data showed that for heroin abstainers, the early detection to drugs was slowed down, but attention avoidance was maintained, and this attention model continued throughout the process on drugs. On the contrary, the early detections to tools and actions were accelerated, and attention to them was maintained continually. In summary, heroin abstainers’ attention bias to different drug-related cues was investigated. These findings provide behavioral and eye movement evidence for the hypothesis that heroin abstainers had different attentional bias patterns for different cue-related pictures. Because attention bias can reflect one's potential psychological state, understanding the attention bias mechanisms of heroin addicts provides important guidelines for revealing the addiction mechanism and detoxification treatment of heroin addicts.
Related Articles | Metrics
Phonological activation during reading in deaf college students: Evidence from the tongue-twister effect
2022, 45(2): 491-497. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Due to the lack of auditory experience, a great number of studies explored whether deaf readers were able to activate phonological information during reading. However, the experimental findings are controversial. Researchers argued that the lack of consistency across previous findings could be partially accounted for by individual differences and differences in research materials. On the one hand, the hearing loss, reading ability and oral ability of deaf readers can influence the activation of phonological information. On the other hand, most studies examined phonological representation of target word during sentence reading, few research has used tongue twister to investigate phonological processing in deaf readers. Tongue twister is sentence that contain a number of words with same initial consonants and/or the same vowels. Previous studies have found that the tongue-twister effect, that is, the tongue twisters took more time than the normal sentences in hearing readers, which support hearing readers are able to activate phonological information during reading. The present study investigated the tongue-twister effect in deaf college student by using eye tracking technique. The design was a 2 (group: deaf college students, hearing middle school students) × 2 (sentence: tongue twister, normal sentence) mixed design. The deaf college students were aged 19.43~20.50 years with a hearing loss above 80dB in their better ear and none had received a cochlear implant. They all learned the pinyin. Hearing middle school students were matched to the deaf college students on reading ability and IQ. 20 students in each group participated in the experiment. Their eye movements were recorded with Eyelink 1000 plus eye tracker. There are 44 tongue twisters and 44 normal sentences. The tongue twisters comprised sentences in which Chinese characters that sequentially followed each other shared similar spelling initials. Normal sentences were matched with tongue twisters in terms of the syntax structure, sentence length, number of character strokes and character frequency. The results showed that in the sentence level analysis, there were significant tongue-twister effects on reading rate, fixation count and regression count for hearing students, compared with normal sentences, the tongue twisters were read slower and took more fixation counts and regression counts. There were only significant tongue-twister effects on reading rate for deaf students, the tongue twisters were read more slowly than normal sentences. The analysis was further carried out by taking each individual character as areas of interest. For hearing students, no significant differences were found between tongue twisters and normal sentences on first fixation duration and gaze duration in all characters, however, there were significant tongue-twister effects on total reading time and regression out, the total reading time on the second to fifth characters in the tongue twisters were longer than they did in the normal sentences, and the third characters produced more regressions in the tongue twisters than normal sentences. For deaf students, no significant differences were found between tongue twisters and normal sentences on first fixation duration, gaze duration and total reading time in all characters. But there was a numerical tendency on the fourth characters for total reading time, the reading time of tongue twisters were longer than normal sentences. There were also significant tongue-twister effects on regression out for deaf students, the fourth characters produced more regressions in the tongue twisters than normal sentences. These results indicated that deaf students activated phonological information during reading, but the activation effect was weaker and appeared later than that of hearing students.
Related Articles | Metrics
Application of rtfMRI-NF technique in depression intervention
2022, 45(2): 498-505. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by impaired emotion regulation. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback(rtfMRI-NF)offers a non-invasive technique to train participates to regulate activation of emotion regulation networks. During the scanning, subjects are instructed to regulate their emotions by upregulating or downregulating the activity of the target brain regions or networks. The neural mechanism of successful emotion regulation with rtfMRI-NF in MDD still remains unclear. This study provides a literature review of advantages and limitations of rtfMRI-NF, as well as results of studies using rtfMRI-NF for emotion regulation enhancement from various target brain areas in MDD. The results have shown that rtfMRI-NF can improve emotion regulation ability and reduce depressive symptom. Moreover, during and after intervene within one or several fMRI sessions, MDD patients are able to voluntarily control the activity of their target brain areas, including the amygdala, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex and several subregions in PFC. Furthermore, most rtfMRI-NF intervention studies also reported that enhancements of functional connectivity between target regions and other emotion-related brain regions, which might be the neural mechanism of regulating emotion successfully with rtfMRI-NF in MDD. In most studies, participants are required to increase activation of target area by recalling positive memory. Although results have shown that participants finally can control activation of target area by themselves without feedback. However, less studies reported participants’ depressive symptom during follow-up, which is important to the assessment of intervention effect. Another core symptom of MDD is anhedonia, which is caused by the functional or structural abnormalities in ventral striatum. So far, only few rtfMRI-NF intervention studies have taken ventral striatum as a target region to normalize the obvious anhedonia of MDD. Hence, using the brain network activation or connection as neural feedback information might be another effective way to strengthen the ability of emotional regulation. Actually, only a few studies provided feedback of functional connectivity among several regions to help participants to regulate brain activation. Additionally, cognitive deficits of MDD also increasingly attract more attention. Existing studies applying rtfMRI-NF intervention in MDD patients were mainly focused on emotion self-regulation training, only few evaluated cognitive performances after rtfMRI-NF training or directly improved cognitive dysfunction using rtfMRI-NF in MDD. Considering that the prefrontal cortex is a key substrate for both emotional and cognitive control, training MDD to regulate PFC may be helpful not only to enhance emotion regulation ability but also to normalize cognitive dysfunction after intervention. Further clinical researches are needed to explore the neural mechanism of NF effect on the relief of symptom in emotional and cognitive domains of depressive disorder. Alternatively, studies with aim to enhance emotion regulation ability in MDD patients can also include assessments of cognitive performances. Given that the achievement of self-regulation with rtfMRI-NF intervention might be the increased connections among several regions, further studies could select more functional-organized areas together as target regions instead of a single one. In conclusion, the rtfMRI-NF might be another promising clinical intervention, which can robustly decrease the depressive symptoms of patients.
Related Articles | Metrics
Primary Social Category and Secondary Social Category: the Interaction Among Multiple Social Categories
2022, 45(2): 506-511. 
Abstract ( )   PDF  
Primary categories are human’s inherent, nature endowed and specific categories, such as sex, age, race and emotion. Secondary categories are individual acquired, environmental impacting and abstract categories, like occupation, religion and stratum. Past research has found that the influence between primary social categories is mutual. And there are two forms of interaction between primary social categories which are symmetry and asymmetry. Specifically, symmetry interaction means that category X affects the processing of category Y, and category Y also affects the processing of category X. For example, Carpinella, Chen, Hamilton and Johnson (2015) found that as faces become more feminine, people are more likely to classify faces as white and less likely to classify as black. When category X affects the processing of category Y, and category Y does not affect the processing of category X. This situation is called "asymmetric interaction". Using the Garner paradigm, Karnadewi and Lipps(2011) found that gender affects face’s emotional classification, that is, when the sex and emotion of target face change simultaneously, the reaction time of individual emotional classification is slower than that of emotional change but gender invariant. But emotion does not affect the classification of gender faces. It is worth noting that when three or more categories interact, there is only symmetric interaction between the categories. Martin and his colleagues(2015) found that any two unnoticed changes in social categories increase the individual's response to the third social category.The influence between primary social category and secondary social category is also mutual, but up to now, there is no study to show whether the interaction is symmetric or asymmetric. On the other hand, The interaction between primary social categories is caused by top-down social concepts such as stereotype overlapping and bottom-up category cues. Bottom-up phenotypic cues lead to interaction between categories. For example, Klothia Dammn Schweinberger and Wiese(2015) found that skin texture plays an important role in the interaction between facial age and facial sex. Gender cues for faces vary according to ethnic categories (e.g. eye size, nose size, Craigg, Koch, & Lipp, 2016). In addition, Freeman et al. (2011) found that occupational phenotypic cues affect ethnic categorization. Therefore, the interaction between primary social categories and primary and secondary social categories may be affected by bottom-up cues. Furthermore, a great deal of research has found that top-down stereotype overlapping lead to interaction between primary social categories. For example, Stolier and Freeman(2016, 2017), using the mouse tracking paradigm , found that the individual's own unique stereotype association influence can predict their category processing , and the similarity between the categories of overlapping stereotype is reflected as the similarity between the right fusiform gyrus (RFG) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) activation pattern. More importantly, the interaction of these social categories cannot be explained by only the similarity of bottom-up visual cues. In contrast, the top-down stereotypes overlap link seemingly unrelated categories together. Although a small number of studies have shown that the interaction between primary social category and secondary social category is caused by bottom-up category cues and there is an overlap of stereotypes between the two categories, there is still no research to prove the role of stereotype overlap in this interaction.
Related Articles | Metrics