心理科学 2018, (2) 351-356 DOI:     ISSN: 0412-1961 CN: 21-1139/TG

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Article by Yan,G.L
Article by Zhang,l
Article by Li,S.N
Article by Yu,Y.L
1. 天津师范大学心理与行为研究院
2. 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地天津师范大学心理与行为研究院
摘要: 近年来,国外儿童阅读发展的眼动研究已逐渐成为阅读研究热点领域。本文就国外儿童阅读的眼动研究成果进行概述,从儿童阅读眼动研究的基本问题、字词、句子、篇章和相关理论等方面对儿童的阅读过程进行考察,总结其阅读发展的一般规律和特点。最后,文章从阅读材料、统计方法以及研究设计几个方面对儿童阅读研究的方法性问题进行展望,以期为中文阅读发展的眼动研究提供借鉴
关键词儿童阅读   发展研究   眼动  
Latest developments on the eye movement study of children’s reading development in foreign countries
Abstract: Recently, eye tracker technology has been extensively used to investigate developmental reading in foreign children,which becomes the hot point in the study of reading domain. This article aimed to summarize the research findings deriving from developmental reading using eye tracking system at abroad. This paper reviewed these achievements which include general reading questions, word processing, text comprehension and relevant theories of reading to reveal the typically developmental characteristics in reading when children grow up. Then, several issues about how to choose statistical analyses, how to screen reading materials as well as consider study designs were discussed to provide guidance for eye movements study of developmental reading in China. A great number of researches in adult reading have made us informed of what happens to their cognitive process during comprehension. However, few investigations about developmental reading in children are conducted. Eye tracking technology can record the eye movements of individuals when reading moment by moment, suggesting how readers fixate upon the information and allocate their attention. Therefore, this method make it convenient to inspect the cognitive mechanism underlying the nature of reading in children. Eye movements in reading can effectively reveal the developmental change about how a novice become a skilled reader. As the age increased, children became more elaborated in reading and their eye movements became more effective. Children tended to show less fixation duration and times, less regressions and higher skipping rate, as well as larger saccade amplitude during reading. Children began to replicate the eye movements characteristics of adult around their 10-11 years old. Reading beginners performed poorly related in reading speed and comprehension. Several studies investigated the reason to suggest that children have limited perceptual span of reading compared to adults. Three western studies in this article found that children can attain the word information in phonology or orthography level from parafoveal region after the second grade. Lexical access level is key to determine the quality of reading. Sub-lexical attributes such as phoneme, morpheme and orthography as well as whole lexical attributes with respect to word frequency and length were include to examine the word processing in children. Young children developed typical phonological knowledge in reading and used it to process words. What’s more, primary students decoded the language in the whole word way. However, the sizes of word frequency and length effects for children were larger than adult readers, which might imply that children identify words in less automatic way than skilled readers, with smaller process unit. When parsing the sentence structure, children could recognize the plausibility of syntax and predict the upcoming objects effectively by using the thematic roles , but were less able to process the pragmatic information as adults did. As a whole, children were less competent to integrate sentence structure and meaning with matured individuals. Referring to comprehending passages, reading tasks modulated the attentional allocation across the text of children.
Keywords: reading of children   developmental research   eye movement  

通讯作者: 闫国利
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